25C-NBOMe can be fatal at heavy doses (as low as 4mg).
It is strongly discouraged to take large amounts of this substance or to insufflate (snort) it. Please see this section for more details.
|Summary sheet: 25C-NBOMe|
|Common names||25C-NBOMe, Cimbi-82, NBOMe-2C-C, 2C-C-NBOMe|
|Routes of Administration|
25C-NBOMe (also known as Cimbi-82, NBOMe-2C-C and 2C-C-NBOMe) is a novel psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine class. It is a member of the 25x-NBOMe series, a recently discovered group of potent psychedelic compounds derived from the 2C-x family.
The name 25C-NBOMe, which is short-hand for 2C-C-NBOMe, is a derivative of the phenethylamine psychedelic 2C-C. It was discovered in 2003 by Ralf Heim at the Free University of Berlin, and subsequently investigated by a team at Purdue University led by David Nichols. It has been studied in its radiolabelled form as a potential ligand for mapping the distribution of serotonin-2A receptors in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET). The first reports of human use appeared in 2010 following its appearance on the online research chemical market.
Subjective effects include stimulation, open and closed-eye visuals, time distortion, euphoria, and ego loss. 25C-NBOMe's effects are sometimes compared to those of LSD or DOx. However, it is reported to have stronger visual effects and less cognitive and emotional effects like ego loss and introspection. Additionally, 25C-NBOMe is reported to be considerably more stimulating than other psychedelics. Serious side effects are more common and include nausea, muscle tension, anxiety, cardiovascular effects, and seizures.
It is worth noting that members of the NBOMe series are not orally active and should be administered sublingually (by holding it into one's mouth and allowing it to absorb over a period of 15 minutes). 25C-NBOMe can also be vaporized and inhaled for more rapid and powerful effects and a shorter duration. However, this route of administration is highly advised against due to the difficulties of measuring and handling substances that are active in the microgram range as it significantly increases the risk of overdose. 25C-NBOMe is also sometimes sold as a counterfeit version of LSD due to its similar effects and ability to be laid onto blotter paper.
Very little is known about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 25C-NBOMe. However, it has been associated with many deaths and hospitalizations which suggests that it has a significantly worse toxicity profile than classical psychedelics like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms. Along with its highly sensitive dose-response and unpredictable effects, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
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25C-NBOMe or 2C-C-NBOMe is a serotonergic N-benzyl derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic known as 2C-C. 25C-NBOMe is a substituted phenethylamine with methoxy groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a chlorine atom attached to carbon R4. It differs from 2C-C structurally through a substitution on the amine (NH2) with a 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) group as shown in the image to the right. 25C-NBOMe shares this 2-methoxybenzyl substitution with other chemicals of the NBOMe family. This NBOMe addition contains a methoxy ether CH3O- bound to a benzene ring at R2.
This pharmacology section is incomplete.
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25C-NBOMe has efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor where it acts as a potent partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.
In comparison to 2C-C, the addition of an NBOMe group to the structure results in a sixteen fold increase in potency, allowing even the most extreme of dosages to fit in liquid form onto tabs and blotter paper, which people often mistake for LSD. In comparison to LSD however it is only a third of the potency.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - 25C-NBOMe is considered to be very energetic and stimulating. The physical stimulation manifested by this substance can be described as similar to 2C-B , and is commonly experienced as simultaneously easygoing and physically difficult, sometimes presenting overstimulation which results in bodily shakes and teeth grinding. The levels of stimulation are reported to be more intense than classical psychedelics but less intense than 25I-NBOMe, of which it is described as mildly sedating by comparison.
- Mouth numbing - Assuming the substance has been taken sublingually, the very first physical effect which a user will notice is a strong, unpleasant metallic chemical taste. This is accompanied by a very obvious feeling of general numbness of the tongue and mouth which can stay for up to an hour after the blotter paper has been consumed. This is the key difference when it comes to determining whether one's blotter paper contains LSD or one of the NBOMe series.
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" itself can be described as a generally mild, all-encompassing, soft but euphoric tingling sensation. This tingling sensation is also accompanied by spontaneous rushes of euphoria that become longer and more drawn out proportional to the dosage consumed.
- Perception of bodily lightness - In terms of the body’s perceived weight, this substance consistently leaves people feeling extremely light, often to the point of total weightlessness.
- Tactile hallucination
- Changes in felt gravity - Compared to classic tryptamines, this effect is considerably less intense than what is commonly experienced with DMT and psilocin.
- Nausea - As the user begins to come up, nausea is not uncommon and can sometimes result in initial vomiting, but passes once this has either happened or the trip begins to fully set in. In comparison to other psychedelics such as psilocin, LSD, 2C-E and 2C-I, this could actually be very considered very mild in its intensity.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle cramps
- Muscle tension
- Gustatory hallucination
- Appetite suppression
- Stomach cramps
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty urinating or Frequent urination
- Restless legs
- Pupil dilation
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- After images
- Colour shifting
- Environmental cubism
- Scenery slicing
- Symmetrical texture repetition
25C-NBOMe visual geometry is often described as very similar in appearance to that of LSD. They can be comprehensively described as algorithmic in geometric style, intricate in complexity, fine and zoomed out in detail, fast and smooth in motion, structured in shape, colourful in scheme, glossy in colour, sharp around the edges and mostly rounded across their corners. In comparison to other more commonly used psychedelics, they can be described as significantly more intricate than the visual geometry found within 2C-I and most of the 2C-x family in general as well as completely on par with LSD, Psilocin and DMT at appropriately high dosages, which seem lower in proportion to the accompanying physical effects when compared to that of 25I-NBOMe.
The behavior of 25C-NBOMe geometry leads to Level 8A visual geometry with Level 8B remaining so far unconfirmed within this substance. They also seem to consistently build up in visual intensity when the user stares at a central point. This eventually envelopes the visual field and creates the sensation that the user has broken through into a continuously shifting geometric landscape or structure with a vast sense of immersive physical size attributed to it.
25C-NBOMe is capable of producing a full range of hallucinatory states within the level 1 - 3 range extremely consistently. However, level 4 - 5 hallucinatory breakthroughs are reported but very uncommon and inconsistent in comparison to other more commonly used psychedelics such as psilocin, 2C-E and DMT. This can be considered as on par with and identical in behaviour to that of LSD and 25I-NBOMe.
These effects include:
- Internal hallucination - (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) These are more common within dark environments and can be described as internal in their manifestation, lucid in believability, interactive in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
- External hallucination - (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots). These are often manifesting as rapidly moving, interactive solid and typically asymmetrical matter or physical beings reflecting imagined concepts. They are more common in bright environments and can be described as external in their manifestation, equally lucid and delirious in believability, interactive in style, autonomous in interaction, and almost exclusively alien, mystical, or a transcendental nature in their overall theme.
The cognitive effects of 25C-NBOMe are commonly described as being notably light and underwhelming in comparison to more traditional psychedelics. It is not uncommon for user to report feeling that their thought stream has maintained a normality in style throughout low to moderate dosages. At high dosages, however, mild to overwhelming cognitive alterations become present; this dosage seems to be lower in proportion to physical effects when compared to 25I-NBOMe.
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is generally only present at low doses.
- Thought acceleration and Thought deceleration - Although one of 25C-NBOME's effects is thought acceleration, the opposite may occur at higher doses.
- Conceptual thinking - This effect is considered to be very mild compared to traditional psychedlics.
- Anxiety & Paranoia - This effect seems to occur more readily than other psychedelics, perhaps due to its very prominent stimulating properties
- Feelings of impending doom - This is generally only experienced during the comedown period or if one has taken a large amount of the substance.
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - The entactogenic effects range from mild to powerful, but are inconsistently manifested. Entactogenic effects for people who try this substance usually become prominent in the presence of others. These feelings of increased sociability, love and empathy do not seem to be quite as strong or profound as those found within other entactogens (such as MDMA, 2C-B and AMT)
- Language suppression
- Memory suppression
- Novelty enhancement
- Immersion enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Increased sense of humor
- Increased music appreciation
- Personal bias suppression
- Increased libido
- Time distortion
- Dosage independent intensity - While the reasons for this are not understood, many reports suggest that this substance can produce unexpectedly strong or weak effects even when taken at the seemingly same dose in an unpredictable manner. This may contribute to the relative risk it is poses compared to most other psychedelics.
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Transpersonal effects on 25C-NBOMe are thought to occur with less frequency than classical psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, and mescaline.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience:1mg 25c-NBOMe - Experiment in my room
- Experience:2mg 25C-NBOMe - Experimental trip to test personal limits of NBOMes
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
25C-NBOMe is a relatively new substance, and little is known about its pharmacological risks or its interaction with other substances. The LD50 has not yet been determined although it can be fatal at heavy dosages.
It is advised that due to 25C-NBOMe's extreme potency it should not be insufflated (snorted) as this method of administration has been attributed to several fatal overdoses due to improper dosing.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Dependence and abuse potential
25C-NBOMe is not habit-forming, and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of 25C-NBOMe is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 25C-NBOMe presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of 25C-NBOMe all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
Due to the very high potency and seemingly unpredictable effects the margin between a normal and an overdose of NBOMe compounds is extremely small when compared to many other substances. The exact toxic dose is unclear since it seems to depend a lot on personal physiology, rather than predominantly dose. However, various anecdotal reports suggest that dangerous side effects begin to appear when exceeding 1000 μg and it possibly becoming lethal for the more sensitive people at roughly 2000 μg. Reports of other people surviving much higher doses, sometimes even without any major side effects have been documented as well.
There is also the uncertainty of dosage on blotter paper since it is rather difficult to lay such an exact dosage. Insufflating, vaporizing or drinking tinctures of this substance is highly discouraged because of this and has been tied to many documented deaths. One study found that 25I‐NBOMe and 25C‐NBOMe blotter papers contained 'hotspots' with higher quantities of the drug, implying an inherent risk of overdosing.
The overdose effects of NBOMes are typically a dangerously high heart rate, blood pressure, hyperthermia and significant vasoconstriction also accompanied by confusion, delusions, panic attacks, aggressive behavior, numbness or pain, amnesia and often seizures. The risks in an overdose include anything from organ failure to cardiac arrest and death. There are also multiple reports of people lethally injuring themselves or falling to death. Benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help with the psychological effects during an overdose although medical attention should always be called in even a possible overdose of 25I-NBOMe.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit. Due to the highly unpredictable nature of the NBOMe series, it is generally advised to avoid mixing them with other psychoactive substances.
- 2C-T-X - The 2C-T-X phenethylamines can be unpredictable in their interactions and the NBOMes are known to be unpredictable even alone. As a result, this combination should be avoided.
- 5-MeO-xxt - The 5-MeO tryptamines can be unpredictable in their interactions and the NBOMes are known to be unpredictable even alone. As a result, this combination should be avoided.
- Amphetamines - Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and, in extreme cases, heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
- Caffeine - Caffeine can bring out the natural stimulation from psychedelic drugs to make it uncomfortable. High doses can cause anxiety which is hard to handle while tripping.
- Cannabis - Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of psychedelics. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
- Cocaine - Cocaine and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in severe vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and in extreme cases heart failure.
- Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed in the treatment of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
- MAOIs - MAO-B inhibitors can increase the potency and duration of phenethylamines unpredictably.
- MXE - As an NMDA antagonist, MXE potentiates NBOMes which can be unpleasantly intense.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and NBOMes have also shown a tendency to cause severe seizures
- Austria: Since June 26, 2019, 25C-NBOMe is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG. (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich)
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Canada: 25C-NBOMe would be considered Schedule III as it is a derivative of 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine.
- China: As of October 2015 25C-NBOMe is a controlled substance in China.
- Germany: 25C-NBOMe is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of December 13, 2014. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Israel: The NBOMe series of psychoactives became controlled in Israel in May, 2013.
- Italy: 25C-NBOMe is a Schedule 1 controlled substance in Italy, meaning it is illegal to possess, distribute, and manufacture.
- Japan: 25C-NBOMe is a narcotic drug in Japan effective November 1st, 2015.
- Latvia: 25C-NBOMe is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- New Zealand: 25C-NBOMe was sold as a designer drug in New Zealand in early 2012, but was withdrawn from sale after a statement by Associate Health Minister Peter Dunne that 25C-NBOMe would be considered to be substantially similar in chemical structure to the illegal hallucinogen DOB, and was therefore a Class C controlled drug analogue.
- Russia: Russia became the first country to regulate the NBOME class. The entire NBOMe series of psychoactives became controlled in the Russian Federation starting October, 2011.
- Sweden: 25C-NBOMe is classed as Schedule I.
- Switzerland: 25C-NBOMe is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- Turkey: 25C-NBOMe is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. 
- United Kingdom: 25C-NBOMe is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the N-benzylphenethylamine catch-all clause.
- United States: Several NBOMe series compounds will be temporarily scheduled in the United States for 2 years with the possibility of an additional year. The temporary scheduling applies to 25C-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, and 25I-NBOMe.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Erowid 2C-C-NBOMe (25C-NBOMe) Vault : Fatalities / Deaths
- ↑ Heim, R. (2004). "Synthese und Pharmakologie potenter 5-HT2A-Rezeptoragonisten mit N-2 -Methoxybenzyl-Partialstruktur: Entwicklung eines neuen Struktur-Wirkungskonzepts". doi:10.17169/refubium-16193.
- ↑ Braden, M. R. (1 January 2007). "Towards a biophysical understanding of hallucinogen action". Theses and Dissertations Available from ProQuest: 1–176. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- ↑ Ettrup, A., Hansen, M., Santini, M. A., Paine, J., Gillings, N., Palner, M., Lehel, S., Herth, M. M., Madsen, J., Kristensen, J., Begtrup, M., Knudsen, G. M. (April 2011). "Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT2A agonist PET tracers". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (4): 681–693. doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1686-8. ISSN 1619-7070.
- ↑ Hansen, M. (2010). Design and Synthesis of Selective Serotonin Receptor Agonists for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of the Brain: PhD Thesis. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen. ISBN 9788792719003.
- ↑ Hansen, M., Phonekeo, K., Paine, J. S., Leth-Petersen, S., Begtrup, M., Bräuner-Osborne, H., Kristensen, J. L. (19 March 2014). "Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists". ACS chemical neuroscience. 5 (3): 243–249. doi:10.1021/cn400216u. ISSN 1948-7193.
- ↑ Zuba, D., Sekuła, K., Buczek, A. (10 April 2013). "25C-NBOMe--new potent hallucinogenic substance identified on the drug market". Forensic Science International. 227 (1–3): 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.08.027. ISSN 1872-6283.
- ↑ Erowid 2C-C-NBOMe Vault : Dose/Dosage
- ↑ Tarpgaard, M., Mærkedahl, R., Lauridsen, K. B. (24 August 2015). "[Fatal intoxication with the new designer drug 25C-NBOMe]". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 177 (35): V09140523. ISSN 1603-6824.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Grautoff, S., Kähler, J. (May 2014). "[Near fatal intoxication with the novel psychoactive substance 25C-NBOMe]". Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin Und Notfallmedizin. 109 (4): 271–275. doi:10.1007/s00063-014-0360-5. ISSN 2193-6226.
- ↑ Erowid 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Vault : Fatalities / Deaths
- ↑ Erowid NBOMe (Other or Unknown NBOMe-Compound) Vault : Fatalities / Deaths
- ↑ Lützen, E., Holtkamp, M., Stamme, I., Schmid, R., Sperling, M., Pütz, M., Karst, U. (April 2020). "Multimodal imaging of hallucinogens 25C‐ and 25I‐NBOMe on blotter papers". Drug Testing and Analysis. 12 (4): 465–471. doi:10.1002/dta.2751. ISSN 1942-7603.
- ↑ Marchi, N. C., Scherer, J. N., Fara, L. S., Remy, L., Ornel, R., Reis, M., Zamboni, A., Paim, M., Fiorentin, T. R., Wayhs, C. A. Y., Von Diemen, L., Pechansky, F., Kessler, F. H. P., Limberger, R. P. (1 March 2019). "Clinical and Toxicological Profile of NBOMes: A Systematic Review". Psychosomatics. 60 (2): 129–138. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2018.11.002. ISSN 0033-3182.
- ↑ Yoon, K. S., Yun, J., Kim, Y.-H., Shin, J., Kim, S. J., Seo, J.-W., Hyun, S.-A., Suh, S. K., Cha, H. J. (1 April 2019). "2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25D-NBOMe) and N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (25C-NBOMe) induce adverse cardiac effects in vitro and in vivo". Toxicology Letters. 304: 50–57. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.01.004. ISSN 0378-4274.
- ↑ https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/File:Nbome_death_news_i2013e0190_disp.jpg
- ↑ https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/File:Nbome_death_news_i2013e0191_disp.jpg
- ↑ https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2019_II_167/BGBLA_2019_II_167.pdfsig
- ↑ http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
- ↑ Branch, L. S. (2022), Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
- ↑ 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
- ↑ "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- ↑ "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 Erowid NBOMe Series Vault : Legal Status
- ↑ Tabella 1 Stupefacenti dello Stato Italiano |http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pagineAree_3729_listaFile_itemName_0_file.pdf
- ↑ 新たに４物質を麻薬に指定し、規制の強化を図ります ｜報道発表資料｜厚生労働省, 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW)], retrieved 2 May 2022
- ↑ Zaudējis spēku - Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem
- ↑ “Legal high” DIME not so legal, 2012
- ↑ Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 6 октября 2011 г. N 822 г. Москва | http://www.rg.ru/2011/10/19/narko-dok.html
- ↑ Läkemedelsverkets författningssamling
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Başbakanlık Mevzuatı Geliştirme ve Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü
- ↑ https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3-1.pdf}}
- ↑ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014
- ↑ DEA proposed rules | http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-10/pdf/2013-24432.pdf