|Summary sheet: 2C-B|
|Molecular structure of 2C-B|
|Common names||2C-B, Nexus, Bees|
|Routes of Administration|
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (also known as Nexus, Bromo Mescaline, BDMPEA, Venus and commonly as 2C-B) is a psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine chemical class that produces psychedelic effects when administered. It is a popular member of the 2C-x family of psychedelic phenethylamines, all of which were derived from the systematic modification of the mescaline molecule.
2C-B was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974 and its activity in humans described in his 1991 book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved"). This particular substance is part of the so-called "magical half-dozen" which refers to Alexander Shulgin's self-rated most important phenethylamine compounds, all of which except mescaline he developed and synthesized himself. They are found within the first book of PiHKAL, and are as follows: Mescaline, DOM, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
It first saw use among the psychiatric community as an adjunct in psychotherapy. It was considered one of the best substances for this purpose because of its short duration, relative absence of side effects, and comparably mild nature. Shortly after becoming popular in the medical community, it became popular recreationally.
2C-B was first sold commercially as an aphrodisiac under the trade name "Eros," which was manufactured by the German pharmaceutical company Drittewelle. For several years, it was available as tablets in Dutch smart shops under the name "Nexus." In modern times it is used as a recreational substance, psychotherapeutic aid, and an entheogen.
- 1 History and culture
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Combinations
- 6 Toxicity and harm potential
- 7 Legal status
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 Literature
- 11 References
History and culture
2C-B was first synthesized and discovered by Alexander Shulgin in 1974. He later published his findings on 2C-B in his 1991 book PiHKAL, and included it among the "magical half dozen" of psychedelic phenethylamines he deemed most important. In interviews, Alexander Shulgin has repeatedly declared it his favorite psychedelic trip.
In the 1970s, 2C-B was used in patients by a small number of psychotherapists in the United States. These therapists reported the drug created a warm, empathetic bond between them and their patients. The therapists also said the drug helped break down a patient's ego defenses and inner resistances, allowing the patient to get in touch with suppressed emotions and repressed memories. The gentle nature of 2C-B, in addition to its mild side effects and short duration, was found to be desirable traits for in the therapeutic setting.
Not long after the drug gained traction in the medical community, 2C-B became popular in the recreational drug scene. 2C-B was well liked as an MDMA substitute ideal for raves and parties with minimal comedown and a clear euphoric headspace.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, several foreign companies legitimately manufactured 2C-B under the brand names Nexus, Erox, and Performax and advertised that it would alleviate impotence, frigidity, and diminished libido. It was sold at adult book and video stores, "head" shops, and some nightclubs. The DEA reported it to be sold in Miami, FL as yellow pills marketed as an aphrodisiac.
After MDMA was classified as Schedule I by the United States in 1985, 2C-B gained popularity as an alternative to the now illegal party drug. Its increasing popularity caused it to be placed in Schedule I in 1995. Its use has since seen a resurgence due to the advent of online research chemical vendors.
2C-B is used as entheogen by the Sangoma, Nyanga, and Amagqirha people over their traditional plants; they refer to the chemical as Ubulawu Nomathotholo, which roughly translates to "Medicine of the Singing Ancestors".
2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a substituted phenethylamine featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain. 2C-B contains methoxy functional groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a bromine atom attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring.
2C-B belongs to the 2C family of phenethylamines, all of which contain methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the benzene ring.
Unlike most psychedelics, 2C-B has been shown to be a low efficacy serotonin 5-HT2A receptor partial agonist or even full antagonist. This suggests that the 5-HT2C receptor is primarily responsible for mediating the effects experienced by users of 2C-B. Research also suggests that 2C-B increases dopamine levels in the brains of rats which may contribute to its psychoactivity.
However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, 2C-B is usually considered to be very energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is quite comparable to that of MDMA.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of 2C-B is not necessarily one of the most intense, but is instead one of the most complex compared to other psychedelics, sharing components of MDMA, 2C-E, and LSD. This is first characterized by an intense soft, warm glow that grows over the body and is capable of becoming highly euphoric. This is most similar to MDMA and is consistently manifested throughout the experience. This is contrasted by an intensely pleasurable yet sharp, cold electric tingling sensation which moves up and down the body. This is most similar to LSD and is also consistently manifested throughout the experience. The final physical effect noticed throughout the experience is an intense and slightly uncomfortable, energetic pins and needles sensation that manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting and tingling sensation that travels up and down the body in spontaneous waves. This is most similar to 2C-E and is not entirely consistent throughout the experience.
- Nausea - Mild to extreme nausea is reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Bodily control enhancement
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased bodily temperature
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Pupil dilation
- Tactile enhancement
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- After images
- Colour shifting
- Depth perception distortions
- Scenery slicing
- Symmetrical texture repetition
The visual geometry that is present throughout this trip is more similar in appearance to that of LSD than that of 2C-E, psilocin, or ayahuasca. They can be comprehensively described as unstructured in their organization, algorithmic in geometric style, intricate in complexity, large, fast and smooth in motion, colorful in scheme, glossy in color, sharp in their edges and angular in their corners. They seem high in algorithmic visuals such as fractals and at higher dosages are significantly more likely to result in states of level 8A visual geometry over level 8B.
Like LSD, while 2C-B is capable of producing a full range of low and high-level hallucinatory states, this is extremely rare and inconsistent at higher levels but common at lower and generally includes the following effects:
- Internal hallucinations (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; alterations in perspective and scenarios and plots) - Although 2C-B is technically capable of producing hallucinatory states in a fashion that is on par with psilocin or DMT in its vividness and intensity. In comparison, these effects are extremely rare and inconsistent at common doses, though are usually readily producible at high doses, particularly when taken by rectal or intravenous routes. Whilst traditional psychedelics such as LSA, ayahuasca and mescaline will induce internal hallucinations near consistently at level 5 geometry and above, 2C-B will for most go straight into Level 8A visual geometry. This lack of consistently induced hallucinatory breakthroughs means that for some, 2C-B is simply not as deep of an experience as certain other psychedelics.
- Peripheral information misinterpretation
The cognitive effects of 2C-B are often described as both insightful and relatively normal in their thought processes even at moderate to high dosages. They are often described as being halfway between LSD and MDMA.
The total sum of these cognitive components regardless of the setting generally includes:
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are a little weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA but still prove stronger and more consistent than other psychedelics of any class. This is capable of providing long-lasting therapeutic effects.
- Analysis enhancement - This introspection dominant effect is only manifested consistently in the context of a non-social setting in which the user is alone.
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Immersion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Increased libido
- Increased sense of humor
- Increased music appreciation
- Memory suppression
- Personal bias suppression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Time distortion
- Synaesthesia - In its fullest manifestation, this is a very rare and non-reproducible effect. Increasing the dosage can increase the likelihood of this occurring, but seems to only be a prominent part of the experience among those who are already predisposed to synaesthetic states.
- Note: While 2C-B has been reported as having the potential to produce transpersonal states, it is reported to occur less consistently or with less of a lasting impact than with so-called "classical psychedelics" such as psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline, LSD, or DMT.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience: 15mg 2C-B (oral) - A pleasant low-dose evening with Nexus
- Experience:150mg MDMA + 20mg 2C-B - I designed it this way myself
Additional experience reports can be found here:
- Cannabis - When used in combination with cannabis, both the visual and cognitive effects of 2C-B can be intensified and extended with extreme efficiency. This should be used with extreme caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics as this can also amplify the anxiety, confusion and psychosis producing aspects of cannabis significantly.
- Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of 2C-B have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone present, and more intense internal hallucinations, and corresponding confusion which can spontaneously manifest as delusions and psychosis.
- Nitrous - Nitrous oxide ("Laughing gas") is commonly used in combination with psychedelics. The two are known to possess powerful cross-synergistic effects, including the capacity to send the user directly into an "ego death" state. The speed and intensity with which this occurs is very rapid and the euphoria that can result often leads to the urge to compulsively redose.
- MDMA - When used in conjunction with MDMA, the physical and cognitive effects of MDMA are amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of 2C-B are also intensified with an overwhelming euphoric pleasure manifested through uniquely pleasurable body highs and headspaces, and uniquely colorful and awe-inspiring visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is best to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects, so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.
- Alcohol - This interaction is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration and nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively affect a trip if taken in moderate to high dosages. This combination is, however, reasonably safe in low doses and can often "take the edge off" a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines, albeit in a more physically taxing way.
- Benzodiazepines - When used in combination with benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an 2C-B experience. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose due to the very high dependence and addiction potential that benzodiazepines possess.
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2C-B use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context, and the exact toxic dose is unknown.
Anecdotal reports from those who have tried 2C-B suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying it by itself at low to moderate doses or using it very sparingly (although nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
2C-B is non-addictive and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use.
Tolerance to the effects of 2C-B are not built almost immediately after ingestion as with other psychedelics. There are many anecdotal reports of people ingesting this substance many days in a row with no immediate tolerance build up.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Lithium - Lithium is often used as treatment for bipolar disorder. It may possibly cause elevated risk of seizures and psychosis due to its glutaminergic and GABAergic effects.
- Stimulants - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into uncontrollable anxiety, panic, thought loops and paranoia. This interaction may cause elevated risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures, particularly in those who are predisposed to them.
- Australia: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Austria: 2C-B is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
- Belgium: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- The EU: 2C-B is a Schedule II drug.
- Canada: 2C-B is a Schedule III drug.
- Italy: 2C-B is Schedule I (tabella I)
- Estonia: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.
- Finland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Germany: 2C-B is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the BtMG.
- Japan: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- The Netherlands: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Latvia: 2C-B is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- Norway: 2C-B is a Schedule II drug.
- Poland: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.
- Russia: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Spain: 2C-B is a Category 2 drug.
- Sweden: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.
- Switzerland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- United Kingdom - 2C-B is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the phenethylamine catch-all clause.
- United States: 2C-B is a Schedule I drug.
- González, D., Torrens, M., & Farré, M. (2015). Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions. BioMed Research International, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/643878
- Shulgin A. T., Carter M. F. Centrally active phenethylamines. Psychopharmacology Communications. 1975;1(1):93–98. PMID: 1223994
- Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "PIHKAL" - #20 2C-B. Retrieved Oct 26, 2017.
- Shulgin, A., & Shulgin, A. (1991). Erowid Online Books: "PIHKAL" - The Chemical Story. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Erowid 2-CB effects | http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cb/2cb_effects.shtml
- 2C-B (Nexus) Reappears on the Club Drug Scene | http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs0/665/665p.pdf
- Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved http://isomerdesign.com/PiHKAL/read.php?id=20
- Functional Selectivity of Hallucinogenic Phenethylamine and Phenylisopropylamine Derivatives at Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C Receptors | http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/321/3/1054
- http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705722/abstract;jsessionid=7F4731B4EF0AF36C37D0E3CA60319C4E.f03t04 | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705722/abstract;jsessionid=7F4731B4EF0AF36C37D0E3CA60319C4E.f03t04
- behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of the psychedelic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-012-2797-7
- "Shulgin, A (1991) PIHKAL" | http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/pihkal/pihkal020.shtml
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
- "CDSA Schedule II" | http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/schedule.php?schedule=3§ion=ALL&structure=C
- Italy drug schedule | http://www.salute.gov.it/medicinaliSostanze/paginaInternaMedicinaliSostanze.jsp?id=7&menu=strumenti
- BtMG Anlage I | https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/btmg_1981/anlage_i.html
- Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2,5-Dimetoksifeniletānamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
- United Kingdom. (1977). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 1977/1243). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved July 5, 2017, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1977/1243/made