Psychological effects

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Main article: Catharsis

Catharsis can be described as a process of healing or releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed negative emotions. This effect is commonly referred to as "purgative" in nature and very effective for helping the individual overcome conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other personal afflictions relating to suffered past traumas. This effect varies in its consistence and strength depending on the substance or dosage and is most commonly reported among the orally active tryptamine psychedelics such as psilocin, 4-AcO-DMT, iboga and ayahuasca.

This process of healing old emotions and traumas (no matter the substance) is often described as feeling very natural and cleansing. The cathartic process generally starts off difficult and is sometimes accompanied by very physically intense sensations which then typically leads to pronounced emotion enhancement as well as deep introspection and an analysis of one's character and past events. During this experience, many people describe reliving traumatic events, witnessing painful memories, having enhanced mental imagery, experiencing intense abreactions, painful emotions and even encountering deceased relatives during hallucinatory states.

After this experience is over most users report feelings of contentment, rejuvenation and personal bias suppression which may last days, weeks or even years after the event is over.


Main article: Delusions

Delusions are the experience of spontaneous, incorrect and fictional beliefs held with strong conviction.

In the context of hallucinogenic drugs they are temporary perspectives which one may slip into during high dosage experiences. They are most likely to occur during states of memory suppression and share many common themes and elements with clinical schizophrenia. In most cases, these delusions can be broken out of when appropriate evidence is provided to the contrary or the person has sobered up enough to logically analyse the situation.


Delusions are categorized into four different groups:

  • Bizarre delusion: This is a delusion that is very strange and completely implausible. An example of a bizarre delusion would be that aliens have removed the reporting person's brain.
  • Non-bizarre delusion: This is a delusion that, though false, is at least possible such as the affected person mistakenly believing that they are currently under police surveillance.
  • Mood-congruent delusion: This is any delusion with content consistent with either a depressive or anxious state. For example, a depressed person may believe that news anchors on television highly disapprove of them or a person in a manic state might believe they are a powerful deity.
  • Mood-neutral delusion: This is a delusion that does not relate to the sufferer's emotional state. For example, a belief that an extra limb is growing out of the back of one's head is neutral to either depression or mania.[1]


In addition to these categories, delusions often manifest according to a consistent theme. Although delusions can have any theme, certain themes are more common. Some of the more common delusion themes are:

Delusion of reference

The person falsely believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one's environment have personal meaning or significance. For example, one may feel that people on television and radio or lyrics within a song are talking about or directly to them.

Delusion of sobriety

This is the false belief that one is perfectly sober despite obvious evidence to the contrary such as severe cognitive impairment and an inability to fully communicate with others.

Delusion of control

This is a false belief that another person, group of people, or external force controls one's general thoughts, feelings, impulses, or behaviour.

Delusion of death

This is a false belief that one is about to die, is currently dying, does not exist or has already died.

Delusion of guilt or sin (or delusion of self-accusation)

This is an ungrounded feeling of remorse or guilt of delusional intensity in which one believes that they have committed some sort of unethical act.

Delusion of mind being read

This is the false belief that other people can know one's thoughts.

Delusion of mind being controlled

This is the false belief that a separate entity of some sort is controlling one's thoughts and/or actions.

Delusion of thought insertion

This is the belief that another thinks through the mind of the person. This results in the person becoming unable to distinguish between their own thoughts and those "inserted" into their minds.

Delusion of reality

This is the delusion that something which is actually fictitious is real and either has occurred, is going to occur or is currently occurring. The most common example of this is the belief that a television show, video or a movie which one is watching is a real event that is currently happening within the room and is not just a video.

Grandiose delusion

This is the belief that the affected person is a god or chosen to act as a god. An individual can become convinced they have special powers, talents, or abilities. Sometimes, the individual may actually believe they are a famous person or character such as Jesus Christ.

Delusion of transcendence

This is the belief that one has permanently transcended to a higher plane of dimensional existence as a result of high dosage hallucinogen use. It can also manifest itself as thinking that one has discovered the secret to "transcending" and that they will be able to implement it just as soon as they sober up. Once this occurs, however, the secret is found to be nonsensical or incorrect.

Delusions of enlightenment

This is the belief that one has solved a difficult problem or answered a profound question which is important to the "enlightenment" of the person experiencing it or humanity as a whole.


Main article: Depersonalization

Depersonalization (or depersonalisation) is an anomaly of self-awareness that can occur under the influence of hallucinogenic substances, particularly dissociatives. It consists of a feeling of watching oneself act as they normally would, while having no control over a situation.[2] One may feel that they are "on autopilot" and that the world has become vague, dreamlike, less real, or lacking in significance. Individuals who experience depersonalization feel divorced from their own personal physicality by sensing their body sensations, feelings, emotions and behaviors as not belonging to the same person or identity.[3] Often a person who has experienced depersonalization claims that things seem unreal or hazy during this state.

Chronic depersonalization refers to depersonalization disorder, which is classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. This can be a disturbing experience since many feel that, indeed, they are living in a "dream". Though degrees of depersonalization and derealization can happen to anyone who is subject to temporary anxiety or stress, chronic depersonalization is more related to individuals who have experienced a severe trauma or prolonged stress or anxiety.

Depersonalisation can be considered as the opposite state of mind in comparison to a feeling of unity and interconnectedness. This is because during depersonalisation, one's identity is attributed to nothing which gives them a sense of having no self. However, during a state of unity and interconnectedness, one's identity is attributed to everything instead of nothing which gives them a sense that the entirety of existence is their self.

A similar experience with its own associated psychological disorder is known as derealization. The difference between these two states is that that depersonalization is a subjective experience of unreality in one's sense of self, while derealization is unreality of the outside world.


Main article: Depression

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions and may contemplate or attempt to commit suicide.

In the context of hallucinogen usage, this effect is triggered by certain substances as a temporary effect which can be considered as the polar opposite of cognitive euphoria.

Déjà vu

Main article: Déjà vu

Déjà vu is a common phrase from the French language which translates literally into “already seen”. This is a well documented phenomenon that can commonly occur throughout both sober living and under the influence of hallucinogens. It can be described as having the strong sensation that the current event or situation has already been experienced at some point within the past when, in actuality, it hasn't.

Certain substances are commonly capable of inducing spontaneous and often prolonged states of mild to intense sensations of déjà vu. This provides one with an overwhelming sense that they have “been here before”. The sensation is often accompanied by a false feeling of familiarity with the current location or setting, the current physical actions being performed, the situation as a whole or the effects of the substance itself.

This effect is often triggered despite the fact that during the experience of it one can be rationally aware that the circumstances of the “previous” experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible.

Ego replacement

Main article: Ego inflation

Ego replacement is a rare effect that can be described as the perception of one's sense of self becoming attributed with another. This can manifest in a number of ways such as (but not limited to) another human, animal, or alien consciousness. This delusion is extremely convincing and can result in shifts of perspective as well as delusions of grandeur. This effect is a form of ego dysmorphia and is most common during dissociative psychosis, but is also manifested during ego death on high dose psychedelics.


Main article: Mindfulness

Mindfulness can be described as a psychological concept which is well established within the scientific literature and commonly discussed in association with meditation. It is often broken down into two separate components both of which comprise the experience of mindfulness itself.

The first of these components involves the self-regulation of attention so that its focus is completely directed towards immediate experience, thereby quietening one's internal narrative and allowing for increased recognition of external and mental events within the present moment.

The second component of mindfulness involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment that is characterized by a lack of judgement, curiosity, openness, and acceptance.

Within meditation, this state of mind is deliberately practiced and maintained via the conscious and manual redirection of one's awareness towards a singular point of focus for extended periods of time. In the context of hallucinogens, however, this state is often forcibly induced without any conscious effort or the need of any prior knowledge regarding meditative techniques.

Personality regression

Personality regression is an uncommon and spontaneously occurring effect which often accompanies ego death. It can be described as a mental state in which one suddenly adopts an identical personality, set of mannerisms and behaviour to their past selves from a period of their life which has already occurred.

This is often capable of making one believe that they are a child again and act appropriately to this belief. There are also anecdotal reports of people speaking in languages which they have not used for many years under the influence of this effect.


Main article: Psychosis

Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as a "loss of contact with reality." People with psychosis are described as psychotic. People experiencing psychosis may exhibit some personality changes and thought disorder. Depending on its severity, this may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

Signs and symptoms


A hallucination is defined as sensory perception in the absence of external stimuli. Hallucinations are different from illusions (or perceptual distortions) which are the mis-perception of external stimuli. Hallucinations may occur in any of the senses and take on almost any form, which may include simple sensations (such as lights, colors, tastes, and smells) to experiences such as seeing and interacting with fully formed animals and people, hearing voices, and having complex tactile sensations.

Auditory hallucinations (particularly experiences of hearing voices) are the most common and often prominent feature of psychosis. Hallucinated voices may talk about, or to, the person, and may involve several speakers with distinct personalities. Auditory hallucinations tend to be particularly distressing when they are derogatory, commanding, or preoccupying.


Main article: Delusions

Psychosis may involve delusional beliefs (some of which are paranoid in nature). Put simply, delusions are false beliefs that a person holds on to without adequate evidence. It can be difficult to change the belief, even with evidence to the contrary. Common themes of delusions are persecutory (person believes that others are out to harm them) or grandiose (person believing that he or she has special powers or skills). Depressed people might have delusions consistent with their low mood (such as delusions that they have sinned or have contracted serious illness). Karl Jaspers has classified psychotic delusions into primary and secondary types. Primary delusions are defined as arising suddenly and not being comprehensible in terms of normal mental processes whereas secondary delusions are typically understood as being influenced by the person's background or current situation (such as ethnic, religious, superstitious, or political beliefs).

Thought disorders

Thought disorder describes an underlying disturbance to conscious thought and is classified largely by its effects on speech and writing. Affected people show loosening of associations or a disconnection and disorganization of the semantic content of speech and writing. In the severe form, speech becomes incomprehensible and it is known as "word salad."


Catatonia describes a profoundly agitated state in which the experience of reality is generally considered impaired. There are two primary manifestations of catatonic behavior. The classic presentation is a person who does not move or interact with the world in any way while awake. This type of catatonia presents with waxy flexibility. Waxy flexibility is when someone physically moves part of a catatonic person's body and the person stays in the position even if it is bizarre and otherwise nonfunctional (such as moving a person's arm straight up in the air and the arm staying there).

The other type of catatonia is more of an outward presentation of the profoundly agitated state described above. It involves excessive and purposeless motor behavior, as well as extreme mental preoccupation that prevents an intact experience of reality. An example is someone walking very fast in circles to the exclusion of anything else with a level of mental preoccupation (meaning not focused on anything relevant to the situation) that was not typical of the person prior to the symptom onset. In both types of catatonia there is generally no reaction to anything that happens outside of them.

Delusional parasitosis

Delusional parasitosis, also known as Ekbom's syndrome,[4][5] is a form of psychosis in which victims acquire a strong delusional belief that they are infested with parasites, whereas in reality no such parasites are present.[6]

Sufferers may injure themselves in attempts to rid themselves of the "parasites." Some are able to induce the condition in others through suggestion, in which case the term folie à deux may be applicable.[7][8] Nearly any marking upon the skin, or small object or particle found on the person or his clothing can be interpreted as evidence for the parasitic infestation, and sufferers commonly compulsively gather such "evidence" and then present it to medical professionals when seeking help.[9]

In the context of psychoactive substances, it is particularly common during stimulant psychosis after prolonged chronic usage of cocaine.[10]


Main article: Rejuvenation

Rejuvenation can be described as feelings of mild to extreme cognitive refreshment which can last anywhere from several hours to many years and are often felt after positive experiences with certain hallucinogens. These feelings of rejuvenation can potentially include a sustained sense of general heightened mental clarity, increased emotional stability and calmness alongside of specific subjective effect components such as mindfulness, increased motivation, personal bias suppression and increased focus.

At its highest level, feelings of rejuvenation can become so intense that they manifest as the profound and overwhelming sensation of being "reborn" anew. This feeling can last anywhere from weeks to a lifetime after the experience itself.

Suicidal ideation

Main article: Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation can be described as compulsive thoughts or urges regarding suicide. These thoughts and desires range in intensity from fleeting thoughts to an intense fixation which is usually accompanied by severe depression. This effect can be a manifestation of a number of things including adverse reactions to certain substances, mental illness, traumatic life events, and interpersonal problems. It creates a predisposition to other self-destructive behaviors such as self-harm and drug abuse and, if left unresolved, can eventually lead to attempts of suicide.

The most common substance associated with this component are various antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class.

Transpersonal effects

Existential self-realization

Existential self-realization can be described as a sudden realization, revelation or reaffirmation of one's existence within this universe. This feels like a sudden and profound "waking up", "realization", or "rebirth" that results in an intense sense of motivation, a sudden comprehension of one's situation, an appreciation for life, and a sense of urgency to make the most out of it while it lasts. During this state, no new knowledge is learnt but the previously known information regarding one's existence is reintegrated in a sudden and profound manner that results in a deep sense of appreciation for the unlikely circumstance of one's existence.

This component most commonly occurs at moderate dosages of dissociatives. It also occurs during particularly positive psychedelic trips and after near-death experiences.

Feelings of eternalism

The image above represents how a person under the influence of this component would view themselves as an organism. This is often described as being a singular structure which stretches through the physical dimension of time alongside of all other identically behaving structures which the universe as a whole is entirely comprised of.

Perception of eternalism can be described as a drastic alteration in one's perception of the flow of time. During this state of mind, it feels that all events or points across the timeline of existence are equally "real" and occurring simultaneously, perpetually and eternally alongside of each other. This is in stark contrast to the commonly held perception of daily living which feels as if it is only the present that is "real" whilst the past is over and the future is yet to manifest.

The experience of this component results in feelings of time as just another physical dimension which has no objective or directional flow. Despite this, however, it does not allow one to directly connect their experiences and memories to future events which have not yet occurred. This is felt to be because (despite the apparent illusory nature of past, present and future) cause and effect is still in place and thus logic dictates that we can only experience life one frame at a time using information which was "previously" acquired from prior events.

A common conclusion that is often reached during the experience of this state is that although one's life will inevitably end, it will occur forever within its own time frame and is therefore perpetual despite not being infinite in length. Although this experience can occur on classic psychedelics like DMT and mescaline, it is most commonly and consistently experienced with psilocin, ayahuasca and LSD.

Feelings of interdependent opposites

In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang, are concepts used to describe how opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected and interdependent in the natural world.

Perception of interdependent opposites (also known as feelings of duality) can be described as a state of mind that often accompanies ego death levels of memory suppression. It is a powerful sensation in which one sees, understands and physically feels that reality is based upon a system in which the existence or identity of all concepts and situations depend on the co-existence of at least two conditions which are opposite to each other, yet dependent on one another by presupposing each other as logically necessary equivalents.

This experience is usually felt to provide deep insight into the fundamental nature of reality and results in the revelation that basic concepts such as life and death, up and down, self and other, north and south, light and dark, good and bad, big and small, wet and dry, pleasure and suffering, yes and no, internal and external, hot and cold, young and old, something and nothing, being and non-being each exist as states of harmonious and necessary contrast to their opposite force.

Feelings of predeterminism

Feelings of predeterminism can be defined as the sudden perspective or feeling that all events, including human actions, are established or decided in advance by prior causes.

This is an effect which can be spontaneously triggered and felt through a distinct change in thought processes. In terms of how it feels, it can be described as a suppression of the assumption that our internal narrative possesses "free will". This removal feels as if it has revealed free will and choice as entirely illusory.

This revelation is not a result of cognitive insight leading one onto a realization but instead occurs through a forced and sudden change in perspective. This creates the undeniable sensation that one's personal choices, physical actions, current situational perspective, and the very subject matter of their thought stream has always been completely predetermined by prior causes and are therefore outside of conscious control. Instead of feeling as if they are dictated by free will, one's thoughts and decision-making processes become suddenly felt as a vast and complex set of internally stored, instantly decided, pre-programmed, and completely autonomous chemical and mechanistic responses to perceived sensory input.

Once the offset of the experience begins to take its toll, the subject will return to feelings of freedom and independence. Despite this, however, they will usually retain information and realizations regarding what is often interpreted as a profound insight into the illusory nature of free will.

Feelings of self-design

Feelings of self-design can be described as an alteration of perspective in which one experiences a distinct feeling that they are personally responsible for the creation, design, implementation and prior planning of a concept, process or situation which is normally seen as the result of unrelated external causes.

This effect can be experienced at any time but is most commonly felt within moments of such emotional significance that the situation seems inevitable, predestined or perfect to the point where it is exactly how one would have designed it had they have been given the conscious choice to do so in advance. It can be broken down into two separate sub-components which include:

  • Feeling as if one designed, planned out and created certain (or even all) aspects within one's life such as current or past occurrences, loved ones and key events.
  • Feeling as if one designed, planned out and created certain (or even all) aspects outside of one's life such as current or historical events, nature, life, the universe as a whole and the physical laws which it abides by.

Feelings of self-design are most often triggered by level 4 states of unity and interconnectedness in which one's preconceived notions behind the definition of their concept of “god” or “god-hood” can now be felt as identical to that of one's self and identity. However, this component is still perfectly capable of manifesting independently as a stand alone experience which does not necessitate feelings of unity or "god-hood."

Spirituality enhancement

Spirituality enhancement can be described as the experience of a gradual or sudden shift of personal beliefs and interests into something which holds notions of certain key concepts with higher regard than that which it did previously. These concepts and notions are not limited to but generally include:

  • An increased sense of personal purpose
  • An increased interest in the pursuit of developing personal religious and spiritual ideologies
  • An increased sense of compassion towards nature and other people
  • An increased sense of unity and interconnectedness between oneself, nature, god and the universe as a whole
  • A decreased sense of value placed upon finances and material objects
  • A decreased fear of death and the finite nature of existence[11][12]
  • The formation of complex personal religious beliefs.

Although difficult to fully define, spirituality enhancement can often result in drastic changes within one's personality which can become distinctively noticeable to others around those who undergo it.

Unity and interconnectedness

This symbol depicts the universe as a "self-excited" circuit. It was originally created by the late theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler in his 1983 paper Law Without Law. The eye represents the self and the line directly opposite represents that which it is perceiving within the "external" environment. The two sections are connected into each other via arrows to demonstrate that it is a singular and unified system.

Unity and interconnectedness can be described as an alteration in the cognitive rules which define both what one's sense of self or identity is attributed to and what it is felt as separate from. For example, most people feel that the self is inherently separate from their external environment and could not possibly extend into it. On top of this, many people feel that the self is specifically limited to not even the physical body as a whole, but exclusively one's internal narrative or thought stream and the image of their own personality as built up through social interactions with other people.

When experienced, this subjective effect directly changes that which one's self is currently attributed to so that it becomes capable of including systems which were previously perceived as separate to one's identity or being. The experience of this alteration results in intense and inextricable feelings of unity or interconnectedness between oneself and specific or multiple "external" systems.

Many people who undergo this experience consistently interpret it as the removal of a deeply embedded illusion with its destruction often described as some sort of profound “awakening” or “enlightenment.” Depending on the degree to which this supposed illusion has been lifted, it can lead to five possible levels of differing intensity and degrees of interconnectedness.

These are listed and described below:

1. Unity between specific external systems

The lowest and least complex level can be referred to as a state of “unity between specific external systems.” This is the only level of interconnectedness in which the subjective experience of unity does not involve a state of interconnectedness between the self and the external. Instead, it can be described as a perceived sense of unity between two or more systems within the external environment which in everyday life are usually perceived as separate from each other and from one's identity.

There are an endless number of ways in which this level manifests itself but common examples of the experience often include:

  • A sense of unity between specific living things such as animals or plants and their surrounding ecosystems
  • A sense of unity between other human beings and the objects they are currently interacting with
  • A sense of unity between any number of currently perceivable inanimate objects.
  • A sense of unity between humanity and nature
  • A sense of unity between literally any combination of perceivable external systems and concepts

2. Unity between the self and specific external systems

The second of these two levels can be referred to as a state of “unity between the self and specific external systems.” It can be defined as the experience of a loss of perceived boundaries between a person’s identity and the specific physical systems or concepts within the perceivable external environment which are currently comprising their central point of cognitive focus.

There are an endless number of ways in which this level manifests itself, but common examples of the experience often include:

  • Becoming unified with a specific object one is interacting with
  • Becoming unified with another person or multiple people (particularly common if engaging in sexual or romantic activities)
  • Becoming unified with the entirety of one's own physical body
  • Becoming unified with large crowds of people (particularly common at raves and music festivals)
  • Becoming unified with the external environment, but not the people within it

This creates a sensation which is often described by people as the experience of becoming inextricably "connected to", "one with", "the same as", or "unified" with whatever the perceived external system happens to be.

3. Unity between the self and all perceivable external systems

The third of these five differing levels of interconnectedness can be referred to as "a state of unity between the self and all perceivable external systems." It is defined as the experience of a loss of perceived boundaries between a person’s identity and the entirety of their sensory input including the currently perceivable external environment. The experience as a whole is generally described by people as “becoming one with my surroundings.”

This is felt to be the result of a person’s central sense of self becoming attributed to not just the internal narrative of the ego, but in equal measure to the body itself and everything around it with which it is physically connected to through the senses. Once this sensation is in place, it creates the undeniable perspective that one is the external environment experiencing itself through the specific point within it that this body’s physical sensory perception happens to currently reside in.

It is at this level that a key component of the unity experience becomes an extremely noticeable factor. Once a person's sense of self has become attributed to the entirety of their surroundings, this new perspective completely changes how it feels to physically interact with what was previously felt to be an external environment. For example, when one is not in this state it feels as though they are a central agent organizing the separate world around themselves while physically interacting with an object. However, whilst undergoing a state of unity with the currently perceivable environment, interacting with an external object consistently feels as if the system as a whole is autonomously organizing itself and that one is no longer a central agent operating the process of interaction. Instead the process suddenly feels as if it has become completely decentralized and mutual across itself as the environment begins to autonomously, mechanically and harmoniously respond to itself to perform the predetermined function of the particular interaction.

4. Unity between the self and all presently occurring external systems

The fourth of these five differing levels of interconnectedness can be referred to as a "state of unity between the self and all presently occurring external systems." It is defined as the experience of a loss of perceived boundaries between a person's sense of self, the perceivable external environment, and all which they know to currently exist outside of this through their internally stored model of reality. This feels as if one's sense of self has become attributed to not just the external environment but all of humanity, nature, and the universe as it presently stands in its complete entirety. The experience of this is commonly interpreted by people as “becoming one with the universe.”

When experienced, this effect creates the sudden perspective that one is not a separate agent approaching an external reality, but is instead the entire universe as a whole experiencing itself, exploring itself, and performing actions upon itself through the specific point in space and time which this particular body and conscious perception happens to currently reside within.

5. Unity between the self and all external systems

The fifth of these five differing levels of interconnectedness can be referred to as a "state of unity between the self and the creation of all external systems." It is defined as the experience of a loss of perceived boundaries between a person's identity and all external systems of behavior. This includes not just the systems as they currently stand within the present moment but at each known point of their existence throughout all timelines as defined by the person's internally stored model of reality. It can also include imaginary, hypothetical, and fictional systems or concepts.

When experienced, this feels as if one's sense of self has become attributed to all of space and time including every single past and future event such as the initial creation and eventual destruction of existence. At this point, a number of commonly reported conclusions of a religious and metaphysical nature often begin to manifest themselves as profound realizations. These are described and listed below:

  • A perspective which feels personally responsible for the self-designing, planning, and implementation of every single specific detail and plot element of one's personal life, the history of humanity, and the universe as a whole. This naturally includes personal responsibility for humanity's sufferings and its flaws, but also includes its acts of love and achievements.
  • The sudden and total acceptance of death as a fundamental component of one's life. This is because death is no longer felt to be the destruction of oneself but simply the end of this specific point of conscious awareness, the vast majority of which has always existed and will continue to exist and live on through everything else in which it resides.
  • The realization that one's preconceived notions behind the definition of their concept of “god” or “god-hood” can now be felt as identical to the nature of existence and to that of one's self.

See also


  1. " |
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision). American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0-89042-024-6.
  4. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
  5. Ekbom syndrome: a delusional condition of "bugs in the skin" ( / NCBI) |
  6. Webb, J.P., Jr. (1993). "Case histories of individuals with delusions of parasitosis in southern California and a proposed protocol for initiating effective medical assistance". Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 16–24.
  7. Ekbom syndrome: a delusional condition of "bugs in the skin" ( / NCBI) |
  8. Koblenzer, C.S. (1993). "The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of delusions of parasitosis--a dermatologic perspective".Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 6–10.
  9. Webb, J.P., Jr. (1993). "Case histories of individuals with delusions of parasitosis in southern California and a proposed protocol for initiating effective medical assistance". Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 16–24.
  10. Cocaine Bugs: A Case Report of Cocaine-Induced Delusions of Parasitosis | [1]
  11. Magic Mushrooms and LSD Help Cancer Patients Overcome Fear of Death, Say Scientists |
  12. LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: A qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects |