Psychological effects

From PsychonautWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Psychological effects can be described as any cognitive effect that is either established within the psychological literature or arises as a result of the complex interplay between other more simplistic components such as cognitive enhancements and suppressions.

This page lists and describes the various psychological effects which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Catharsis

Main article: Catharsis

Catharsis can be described as the experience of a sudden healing or releasing of strong or repressed negative emotions. The process typically starts off being difficult to fully face and is sometimes accompanied by very physically intense sensations which typically lead into pronounced emotion enhancement, deep introspection, and an analysis of one's character and past events. During this experience many people describe reliving traumatic events, witnessing painful memories, having enhanced mental imagery, reliving of past experiences, a release of previously repressed emotions, painful feelings in general, and even experiences of encountering deceased relatives during hallucinatory states. This process of healing negative emotions and traumas (no matter the substance) is often described as feeling very natural and cleansing.

In the context of psychoactive substances, this effect is commonly referred to as "purgative" in nature. It can be very effective for helping the individual overcome conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other personal afflictions relating to suffered past traumas. After this experience is over, most users report feelings of contentment, rejuvenation, and personal bias suppression which may last days, weeks, or even years after the event is over.

Catharsis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of entactogens, dissociatives, and meditation.

Delusions

Main article: Delusions

Delusions are spontaneously occurring false beliefs held with strong conviction regardless of evidence to the contrary, rational argument, or how much the belief seemingly contradicts the individual's prior understanding of the world.

In most cases, delusions can be broken out of when overwhelming evidence is provided to the contrary or when the person has sobered up enough to logically analyse the situation. It is exceedingly rare for hallucinogen induced delusions to persist into sobriety. They are most likely to occur during states of memory suppression and share common themes and elements with clinical schizophrenia.

It is worth noting that delusions can often spread between individuals in group settings. For example, if one person makes a verbal statement regarding a delusional belief they are currently holding while in the presence of other similarly intoxicated people, these other people may also begin to hold the same delusion. This can result in shared hallucinations and a general reinforcement of the level of conviction in which they are each holding the delusional belief.

Delusions are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, deliriants, and dissociatives. However, they can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of cannabinoids, stimulant psychosis, and sleep deprivation.

Types

All delusions can be categorized by whether or not they are bizarre and whether or not they are mood-congruent. These various different types are described and documented below:

  • Bizarre delusion: A delusion that is characteristically absurd and completely implausible. An example of a bizarre delusion could be the belief that aliens have removed the delusional person's brain.[1]
  • Non-bizarre delusion: A delusion that, though false, is at least theoretically plausible. An example of this could be the belief that the delusional person is currently under police surveillance.[2]
  • Mood-congruent delusion: A delusion with content consistent with either a depressive or manic state. For example, a depressed person may believe that a news anchor on television highly disapproves of them as a person or that the world is ending. However, a manic person might believe that they are a powerful deity, that they have special talents, a special higher purpose, or are a famous person.[3]
  • Mood-neutral delusion: A delusion that does not relate to the sufferer's emotional state. For example, a belief that an extra limb is growing out of the back of one's head would likely be neutral to a persons depression or mania.[4]

Themes

In addition to these categories, delusions can be classified by their thematic content. Although delusions can have any theme, certain underlying themes are commonly found amongst different people. Some of the more common delusional themes which are induced by psychoactive substances are described and documented below:

Delusion of reference

Delusions of reference are perhaps the most common type of delusion. This delusion typically entails the falsely held belief that an insignificant remark, event, coincidence, or object in the person's environment is either a reaction to the individual or has significant personal meaning relating directly back to their life.

In psychiatry, delusions of reference form part of the diagnostic criteria for illnesses such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.[Controversial] To a lesser extent, they can also be a symptom of paranoid personality disorder.[Controversial] They can also be caused by intoxication, especially with hallucinogens or during stimulant psychosis.

A list of common examples of this type of delusion are described and documented below:

  • Believing that everyone on a passing bus is talking about them.
  • Believing that people on television or radio are talking about or talking directly to them.
  • Believing that headlines or stories in newspapers are written especially for them.
  • Believing that events (even world events) have been deliberately contrived for them, or have special personal significance for them.
  • Believing that the lyrics of a song are specifically about them.
  • Believing that the normal function of cell phones, computers, and other electronic devices are sending secret and significant messages that only they can understand or believe.
  • Believing that objects or events are being set up deliberately to convey a special or particular meaning to themselves.
  • Believing that the slightest careless movement on the part of another person has a significant and deliberate meaning .
  • Believing that posts on social network websites or Internet blogs have hidden meanings pertaining to them.
Delusion of sobriety

A delusion of sobriety typically entails the falsely held belief that one is perfectly sober despite obvious evidence to the contrary such as severe cognitive impairment, significant motor control loss, and an inability to fully communicate with others.

Delusions of sobriety are the most common type of delusion experienced under the influence of GABAergic compounds such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.

Delusion of transcendence

Delusions of transcendence typically entail a falsely held belief that the person has "transcended into a higher plane of existence" or has discovered the secret to "transcending" and will be able to implement it just as soon as they sober up. Once this occurs, however, the supposed secret is found to be nonsensical, incorrect, or forgotten.

They are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelic compounds, particularly during states of high level geometry, memory suppression, and internal hallucinations.

Delusion of enlightenment

Delusions of enlightenment typically entail the sudden realization the person has suddenly become "enlightened" and has figured out or been shown the supposed answer or meaning to life, the universe and everything. This delusion may be accompanied with euphoria from the belief that one has learned the fundamental truth about life. During the experience, this answer is felt to be incredibly simplistic and self-evident but is usually immediately forgotten or realized to be nonsensical once the person has sufficiently sobered up.

Delusions of enlightenment are one of the most common type of delusion under the influence of short acting ego death inducing hallucinogenic compounds such as DMT, nitrous oxide, and salvia.

Delusion of death

Delusions of death are the falsely held belief that the person is about to die, is currently dying, no longer exists, or has already died. This delusion seems to be a result of anxiety caused by misinterpreting the experience of the person losing their sense of self during states of high level ego death. This type of delusion is usually very distressing for the person experiencing it.

Delusions of death are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages psychedelic and dissociative compounds.

Delusion of guilt

Delusions of guilt are caused by unfounded and intense feelings of remorse or guilt that lead the person to conclude that one must have committed some sort of deeply unethical act. The supposed unethical act can range from something relatively mild such as the belief that the person has cheated on their partner or it can be something much more serious such as the belief that they have murdered their friends and family.

Delusions of guilt are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages psychedelic and dissociative compounds.

Delusion of reality

Delusions of reality are the unfounded belief that something fictional such as the plot of a TV show, film, video game, or book is an actual real life event. This delusion may manifest as the perception that the fictional events are genuinely occurring in one's immediate vicinity, or simply that the media being portrayed is real. For example, one may have the sensation that fictional media is occurring around them, or may believe they are watching events occurring in real life, but elsewhere. This delusion seems to be a result of high level immersion enhancement combining with memory suppression to create a state of mind in which somebody is highly engrossed in media while no longer having a functional long term memory that can recall the difference between reality and fiction.

Delusions of reality are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of dissociative and occasionally psychedelic compounds.

Delusion of unreality

Delusions of unreality are the unfounded belief that the person is currently inside of a video game, dream, or movie and therefore their current actions will not have any real life consequences. Depending on the person, this delusion can sometimes result in committing crimes or violent acts. It seems to be a result of intense derealization combined with disinhibition and memory suppression to create an altered state of mind in which somebody mistakes reality for a fictional hallucination.

Delusions of unreality are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogens and occasionally during stimulant psychosis.

Delusion of grandiosity

Delusions of grandiosity are the unfounded belief that oneself or another person is or has become god-like, immortal, a visionary genius, or celebrity.

The delusion of having become godlike is seemingly a result of high level ego inflation and mania. The experience of thinking that another person or the people around them have become godlike is commonly the result of those people being more sober than the delusional person. This causes the delusional person to misinterpret that the other person/people are somehow more capable than a normal human being, when in fact it is just the delusional person who has become comparatively less capable due to cognitive suppressions such as memory suppression.

Delusions of grandiosity are rarely experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelic or dissociative compounds and occasionally during stimulant psychosis.

Delusional Parasitosis

Delusional parasitosis, also known as Ekbom's syndrome,[5][6] is a form of psychosis in which victims acquire a strong delusional belief that they are infested with parasites, whereas in reality no such parasites are present.[7]

Sufferers may injure themselves in attempts to rid themselves of the "parasites." Some are able to induce the condition in others through suggestion, in which case the term folie à deux may be applicable.[8][9] Nearly any marking upon the skin, or small object or particle found on the person or his clothing can be interpreted as evidence for the parasitic infestation, and sufferers commonly compulsively gather such "evidence" and then present it to medical professionals when seeking help.[10]

In the context of psychoactive substances, it is particularly common during stimulant psychosis after prolonged chronic usage of cocaine.[11]

Depersonalization

Main article: Depersonalization

Depersonalization or depersonalisation (sometimes abbreviated as DP) can be described as an anomaly of self-awareness that consists of a feeling of watching oneself act as one normally would, while also feeling is if they have no control over the situation. It can occur under the influence of hallucinogenic substances, particularly dissociatives,[12] and may persist for some time after sobriety.[13][14] During this state, the affected person may feel that they are "on autopilot" and that the world has become vague, dreamlike, less real, or lacking in significance. Individuals who experience depersonalization often feel divorced from their own personal physicality by no longer sensing their body sensations, feelings, emotions, and behaviors as belonging to a person or identity.[15] It is also often claimed by people who have depersonalization that reality seems unreal, distant or hazy. Depersonalization can sometimes be distressing to the user, who may become disoriented by the loss of a sense that their self is the origin of their thoughts and actions. However, it does not have to be an inherently negative altered state of awareness, as it does not directly affect one's emotions or thought patterns.

It is perfectly normal for many people to slip into this state temporarily, often without even realizing it. For example, many people often note that they enter a detached state of autopilot during stressful situations or when performing monotonous routine tasks such as driving.

It is worth noting that this state of mind is also commonly associated with and occurs along side of a very similar psychological disorder known as derealization. While depersonalization is a subjective experience of unreality in one's sense of self, derealization is a perception of the unreality of the outside world.

In psychology, chronic depersonalization that persists during sobriety for prolonged periods of time is identified as "depersonalization disorder" and is classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. While degrees of depersonalization are common and can happen temporarily to anyone who is subject to an anxiety or stress provoking situation, chronic depersonalization is more common within individuals who have experienced a severe trauma or prolonged stress and anxiety. The symptoms of both chronic derealization and depersonalization are common within the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 26-74% and 31–66% at the time of a traumatic event.[16] It has also been demonstrated that derealization may be caused by a dysfunction within the brains visual processing center (occipital lobe) or the temporal lobe, which is used for processing the meaning of sensory input, language comprehension, and emotion association.[17]

Within the context of identity altering effects, depersonalization can be considered as being at the opposite end of the identity spectrum relative to states of unity and interconnectedness. This is because during depersonalisation, a person senses and attributes their identity to nothing, giving a sense of having no self. However, during a state of unity and interconnectedness, one senses and attributes their identity to everything, giving a sense that the entirety of existence is their self.

Depersonalization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and a very similar psychological disorder known as derealization.[14] It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent during the withdrawal symptoms of stimulants and depressants.

Derealization

Main article: Derealization
An artistic replication of what it feels like to experience watching the world through a screen.

Derealization or derealisation (sometimes abbreviated as DR) can be described as an anomaly of self-awareness that consists of a feeling that the external world seems fundamentally unreal, dreamlike, distant, or lacking in substance, life, and spontaneity. People experiencing derealization often claim that reality persistently feels as if it is a dream, or something watched through a screen,[14] like a film or video game. These feelings can sometimes instill the person with a sensation of alienation and distance from those around them.

Depersonalization is not an inherently negative altered state of awareness, as it does not directly affect one's emotions or thought patterns. However, derealization can sometimes be distressing to the user, who may become disoriented by the loss of the innate sense that their external environment is genuinely real. This loss of the sense that the external world is real can in some cases make interacting with it feel inherently inauthentic and pointless.

This state of mind is commonly associated with and often coincides with the very similar psychological state known as depersonalization. While derealization is a perception of the unreality of the outside world, depersonalization is a subjective experience of unreality in one's sense of self.

In psychology, chronic derealization that persists during sobriety for prolonged periods of time, is not attributable to another disorder and is distressful to the person, is identified as "derealization disorder", classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. While degrees of derealization are common and can happen temporarily to anyone who is subject to an anxiety or stress provoking situation, chronic derealization is more common within individuals who have experienced a severe trauma or prolonged stress and anxiety. The symptoms of both chronic derealization and depersonalization are common within the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 26-74% and 31–66% at the time of a traumatic event.[18] It has been demonstrated that derealization may be caused by a dysfunction within the brains visual processing center (occipital lobe) or the temporal lobe, which is used for processing the meaning of sensory input, language comprehension, and emotion association.[19]

Derealization is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and depersonalization.[14] It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds, such as ketamine, PCP, and DXM. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent during the withdrawal symptoms of stimulants and depressants.

Depression

Main article: Depression

Depression can be described as a state of low mood and aversion to activity, which can affect a person's general sense of well-being in a negative manner. Depressed people often feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may have problems concentrating, remembering details, feeling emotions, connecting with other people or making decisions. The negative effects of depression may cause the person to contemplate or attempt to commit suicide.

Within the context of psychoactive substance usage, depression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and irritability and can be considered as the polar opposite of cognitive euphoria. It is most commonly induced when a stimulant or depressant is used repeatedly for prolonged periods of time, during the withdrawal symptoms of almost any substance, or during the comedown/crash of a stimulant. However, it is worth noting that substance-induced depression is often much shorter lasting than clinical depression, subsiding once the effects or withdrawal symptoms of a drug have ended.

When not caused by drug use, in the context of formal psychology, these feelings can be classified as clinical depression or major depressive disorder by the DSM's diagnostic criteria when five (or more) specific symptoms from the list below have been present during the same 2-week period and the feelings represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms must also be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.[20]

  1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)
  2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation.)
  3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
  4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.
  5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
  6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
  7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).
  8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).
  9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

For a diagnosis of clinical depression to be accurate, the symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. They cannot be attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition. The occurrence of the major depressive episode must also not be better explained by another disorder on the schizophrenic or psychotic spectrum.

If you suspect that you are experiencing symptoms of depression, it is highly recommended that you seek out therapy, medical attention, or a support group.

Déjà vu

Main article: Déjà vu

Déjà vu or Deja vu can be described as the sudden sensation that a current event or situation has already been experienced at some point within the past when, in actuality, it hasn't. This a common phrase from the French language which translates literally into “already seen”. It is a well documented phenomenon that can commonly occur throughout both sober living and under the influence of hallucinogens.

Within the context of psychoactive substance usage many compounds are commonly capable of inducing spontaneous and often prolonged states of mild to intense sensations of déjà vu. This can provide one with an overwhelming sense that they have “been here before”. The sensation is also often accompanied by a feeling of familiarity with the current location or setting, the current physical actions being performed, the situation as a whole, or the effects of the substance itself.

This effect is often triggered despite the fact that during the experience of it, the person can be rationally aware that the circumstances of the “previous” experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible.

Déjà vu is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as short term memory suppression and thought loops. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids.

Ego replacement

Main article: Ego inflation

Ego replacement can be described as the sudden perception that one's sense of self and personality has been replaced with that of another person's, a fictional character's, an animal's, or an inanimate object's perspective. This can manifest in a number of ways which include but are not limited to feeling is one has literally become another human, animal, or alien consciousness. During this state, the person will be unlikely to realize that their personality has been temporarily swapped with anothers and will usually not remember their previous life.

Ego replacement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delusions, psychosis, and memory suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Mindfulness

Main article: Mindfulness

Mindfulness can be described as a psychological concept which is well established within the scientific literature and commonly discussed in association with meditation. It is often broken down into two separate subcomponents which comprise this effect:

The first of these components involves the self-regulation of attention so that its focus is completely directed towards immediate experience, thereby quietening one's internal narrative and allowing for increased recognition of external and mental events within the present moment.

The second of these components involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment that is characterized by a lack of judgement, curiosity, openness, and acceptance.

Within meditation, this state of mind is deliberately practiced and maintained via the conscious and manual redirection of one's awareness towards a singular point of focus for extended periods of time. However, within the context of psychoactive substance usage, this state is often spontaneously induced without any conscious effort or the need of any prior knowledge regarding meditative techniques.

Mindfulness is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety suppression and focus enhancement. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur on entactogens, certain nootropics such as l-theanine, and during simultaneous doses of benzodiazepines and stimulants.

Panic attacks

Main article: Panic attacks

Panic attacks can be described as periods of extremely intense anxiety and fear which have a sudden onset[21] and a variable duration.[22] Panic attacks are usually triggered in moments of severe anxiety, such as that caused by a bad trip. They are so subjectively overwhelming both physically and mentally that the user may believe they are dying, or that some great calamity is imminent, and are commonly mistaken for heart attacks. The subjective sensations can overwhelm rational thought even when the user recognizes that they are having a panic attack, especially in those who have not experienced them before.

Panic attacks are often accompanied by uncomfortable physical symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, heart palpitations, nausea, and uncontrollable crying. These physical symptoms may further aggravate a person’s anxiety as they may be mistaken for a serious health problem. The strongest mental effect of panic attacks is a crushing sense of impending doom, accompanied by despair, panic, and dread. These usually begin abruptly and may reach their peak within 10 to 20 minutes, but may also continue for hours in extreme cases before subsiding on their own. Although this experience is incredibly stressful it is important to note that it is not physically dangerous or harmful.

The various cognitive and physical symptoms of a panic attack are described and listed below:

  • Hyperventilation - Hyperventilation occurs when one breathes deeper and more rapidly than usual. When hyperventilating, one may feel as though they are struggling to get enough air. As this causes a decrease of carbon dioxide in the blood, it may result in light headedness, a rapid heartbeat, chest pain, or a tingling sensation in a person's limbs.[23]
  • Abnormal heart rate and palpitations - Due to the release of stress hormones, one may experience heart symptoms including missed beats, palpitations, chest pain, and an accelerated heart rate.
  • Tactile suppression - This can be described as a loss of sensation as well as numbness and tingling sensations throughout the body. It may feel as if one's skin or body parts are numb to the touch, and this can occur in a small area or become all-encompassing throughout multiple body parts or the entire body. Numbness most frequently occurs within the hands, legs, arms, feet, and face. This effect is often accompanied by a pins and needle sensation and it generally increases alongside of hyperventilation.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Feelings of choking
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Bodily pressures
  • Nausea or abdominal distress
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
  • Derealization
  • Depersonalization
  • Fear of losing control or going insane
  • Feelings of impending doom
  • Chills or hot flashes
  • Delusions

Paranoia

Main article: Paranoia

Paranoia can be described as negative and often irrational feelings of fear, worry, and anxiety. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and feelings of impending doom. Paranoia also frequently leads to excessively secretive and overcautious behavior which stems from the perceived ideation of one or more scenarios, some of which commonly include: fear of surveillance, imprisonment, conspiracies, plots against an individual, betrayal, and being caught. This effect can be the result of real evidence, but is often based on assumption and false pretense.

Paranoia is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as anxiety and delusions. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids, psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants and during stimulant comedowns.

Personality regression

Personality regression can be described as a mental state in which one suddenly adopts an identical personality, set of mannerisms and behaviors to that of their past self from a younger age. This is often capable of making one believe that they are a child again and begin acting appropriately to this belief. There are also anecdotal reports of people speaking in languages which they have not used for many years under the influence of this effect.

Personality regression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as memory suppression and ego death. It is a very rare effect that is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics and dissociatives.

Psychosis

Main article: Psychosis

Psychosis can be described as an abnormal condition of the mind and a general psychiatric term for a mental state in which one experiences a "loss of contact with reality." People with psychosis are described as "psychotic".

People experiencing psychosis may exhibit some personality changes and thought disorder. Depending on its severity, this may also be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior as well as difficulty with social interaction and a general impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

Within the context of clinical psychology, psychosis is a very broad term that can mean anything from relatively mild delusions to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder.[24][25][26] Generally speaking however, psychosis involves noticeable deficits in cognitive functioning and diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs, particularly those that are in regard to the relation between self and others such as delusions of grandiosity, paranoia, or conspiracy. The most common of these signs and symptoms of psychosis are listed as separate subcomponents below:

Psychosis is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as deliriants psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids. However, it can also occur under the influence of stimulants, particularly during the comedown or as a result of prolonged binges. It may also manifest from abrupt discontinuation of long term or heavy usage of certain drugs such as benzodiazepines or alcohol; this is known as the delirium tremens (DTs). Aside from substance abuse it may also occur as a result of sleep deprivation, emotional trauma, psychiatric disorder, urinary tract infections, and various other medical condition.

Rejuvenation

Main article: Rejuvenation

Rejuvenation can be described as feelings of mild to extreme cognitive refreshment which are felt during the afterglow of certain compounds. The symptoms of rejuvenation often include a sustained sense of heightened mental clarity, increased emotional stability, increased calmness, mindfulness, increased motivation, personal bias suppression, increased focus and decreased depression. At its highest level, feelings of rejuvenation can become so intense that they manifest as the profound and overwhelming sensation of being "reborn" anew. This mindstate can potentially last anywhere from several hours to several months after the substance has worn off.

Rejuvination is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics and dissociatives. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of entactogens, cannnabinoids, and meditation.

Suicidal ideation

Main article: Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation can be described as the experience of compulsive suicidal thoughts and a general desire to end one's own life. These thoughts patterns and desires range in intensity from fleeting thoughts to an intense fixation. This effect can also create a predisposition to other self-destructive behaviors such as self-harm or drug abuse and, if left unresolved, can eventually lead to attempts of suicide.

Suicidal ideation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as depression and motivation enhancement in a manner which maintains the person's negative view on life but also increases their will to take immediate action. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of various antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. However, outside of psychoactive substance usage, it can also occur as a manifestation of a number of things including mental illness, traumatic life events, and interpersonal problems.

If you suspect that you are experiencing symptoms of suicidal ideation, it is highly recommended that you seek out therapy, medical attention, or a support group.

See also

References

  1. "minddisorders.com | http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delusions.html
  2. "minddisorders.com | http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delusions.html
  3. "minddisorders.com | http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delusions.html
  4. "minddisorders.com | http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delusions.html
  5. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
  6. Ekbom syndrome: a delusional condition of "bugs in the skin" (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21344286
  7. Webb, J.P., Jr. (1993). "Case histories of individuals with delusions of parasitosis in southern California and a proposed protocol for initiating effective medical assistance". Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 16–24.
  8. Ekbom syndrome: a delusional condition of "bugs in the skin" (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21344286
  9. Koblenzer, C.S. (1993). "The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of delusions of parasitosis--a dermatologic perspective".Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 6–10.
  10. Webb, J.P., Jr. (1993). "Case histories of individuals with delusions of parasitosis in southern California and a proposed protocol for initiating effective medical assistance". Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 18 (1): 16–24.
  11. Cocaine Bugs: A Case Report of Cocaine-Induced Delusions of Parasitosis | [1]
  12. Walsh, S. L., Strain, E. C., Abreu, M. E., & Bigelow, G. E. (2001). Enadoline, a selective kappa opioid agonist: comparison with butorphanol and hydromorphone in humans. Psychopharmacology, 157(2), 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130100788
  13. American Psychiatric Association (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision). American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0-89042-024-6.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Espiard, M. L., Lecardeur, L., Abadie, P., Halbecq, I., & Dollfus, S. (2005). Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder after psilocybin consumption: a case study. European Psychiatry, 20(5), 458-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2005.04.008
  15. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depersonalization-derealization-disorder/basics/definition/con-20033401
  16. The epidemiology of depersonalisation and derealisation. A systematic review | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15022041
  17. Separating depersonalisation and derealisation: the relevance of the “lesion method” (bmj.com) | http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/72/4/530
  18. The epidemiology of depersonalisation and derealisation. A systematic review | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15022041
  19. Separating depersonalisation and derealisation: the relevance of the “lesion method” (bmj.com) | http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/72/4/530
  20. Major Depressive Disorder (DSM Diagnostic Criteria) | https://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/assets/basc-3/basc3resources/DSM5_DiagnosticCriteria_MajorDepressiveDisorder.pdf
  21. http://m-w.com/dictionary/panic%20attack | Panic attack - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. Panic disorder | http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000924.htm
  23. Hyperventilation | http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/hyperventilation-topic-overview
  24. American Psychiatric Association, 1994 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Revision IV (DSM-IV)
  25. Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard; Geddes, John (2005). Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-852863-0.
  26. "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge (Timeline)". Scientific American Mind | https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/throughout-history-defining-schizophrenia-has-remained-challenge/