|Summary sheet: LSA|
|Molecular structure of LSA|
|Common names||LSA, Ergine|
|Substitutive name||d-Lysergic acid amide / d-Lysergamide|
|Routes of Administration|
Lysergic acid amide (also known as LSA, d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, and Ergine) is a naturally-occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the lysergamide chemical class that produces psychedelic effects vaguely similar to those of LSD, albeit qualitatively distinct, when administered. It is structurally related to LSD and is thought to be the primary active compound within many plant products such as morning glory seeds, Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds and some species of fungi.
LSA was assayed for human activity by Albert Hofmann in self-trials in 1947, well before it was known to be a natural compound. Intramuscular administration of a 500 microgram dose led to a "tired, dreamy state with an inability to maintain clear thoughts." After a short period of sleep, the effects were gone and normal baseline was recovered within five hours.
This report and others that have since followed suggest that the notion that LSA is the primary psychedelic component within morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds is debatable as the effects of isolated synthetic LSA are only slightly psychedelic in nature. Therefore it is often thought that the overall experience may possibly be produced by a mixture of various lysergamide alkaloids (including iso-LSA and LSH) within these plant materials instead of a single psychoactive compound.
LSA is not considered to be addictive by the scientific community. Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as uncontrollable anxiety, paranoia, delusions and psychotic breaks can always still occur, particularly among those who are predisposed to psychiatric disorders. While these negative reactions or "bad trips" can often be attributed to factors like the user's inexperience or improper preparation of set and setting, they are known to happen spontaneously among even the most experienced of users as well. As a result, it is highly advised to approach this potent hallucinogenic substance with the proper amount of precaution, preparation, and harm reduction practices if choosing to use it.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Combinations
- 5 Natural plant sources
- 6 Preparation methods
- 7 Toxicity and harm potential
- 8 Legal status
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
- 11 References
LSA, or d-lysergic acid amide, is a semisynthetic alkaloid of the lysergamide chemical class. It contains a core structure of lysergic acid with an amine functional group bound to RN of the chemical structure. This core polycyclic structure is an indole derivative, and has overlapping tryptamine and phenethylamine groups embedded within it (though it is primarily classified as a tryptamine).
The structure contains a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (lysergic acid). At carbon 8 of the quinoline, an acetamide group is bound. LSA is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group. It is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8. LSA, also called (+)-D-LSA, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R). The three other stereoisomers of LSA do not have psychoactive properties. LSA is structurally analogous to LSD, with the exception being that LSA lacks the diethyl substitution of LSD at RN of its carboxamide group.
LSA's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain an object of scientific elucidation.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.
- Sedation & Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, LSA tends to be sedating; however, this can be setting dependent. For example, when taken in settings with large amounts of stimuli or during physically strenuous activities such as walking, running, climbing or dancing, it is fully capable of becoming stimulating and energetic. In contrast, when taken in calm environments such as darkened rooms with comfortable seating, it tends to be relaxing, sedating, and even peaceful so long as the "body load" does not come to dominate the experience.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of LSA can be described as a mild yet pleasurable and soft tingling sensation. This is largely noticed in high doses and is accompanied by strong waves of physical euphoria which are usually manifested spontaneously at different unpredictable points throughout the trip but can also maintain a consistent presence. Compared to LSD, the physical effects of LSA tend to predominate the experience relative to its visual and cognitive effects.
- Perception of bodily heaviness
- Physical euphoria - This effect is reported to be more readily able to be produced by LSA than LSD. However, it can be masked by strong, uncomfortable feelings of nausea and vasoconstriction, particularly when LSA-containing seeds are consumed directly before any extraction has been performed.
- Motor control loss - This effect becomes far more present at high doses than lower doses. It can be compared to the loss of motor control experienced with alcohol-induced inebriation and is strengthened by the perception of bodily heaviness.
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Nausea - The nauseating effects of[LSA is thought to be mostly caused by the other components of the seeds (e.g. morning glory, Hawaiian baby woodrose, etc.) and not LSA itself. Various extraction methods can be used to significantly reduce if not eliminate the nausea that can be produced by this substance. Anecdotal reports also suggest that ginger tea or cannabis may be helpful in counteracting nausea.
- Vasoconstriction - LSA is commonly reported to produce strong and pronounced feelings of vasoconstriction. This varies in its intensity between individuals but is often considered moderately to extremely uncomfortable in comparison to other psychedelics. This effect is commonly reported to cause joint and limb pains.
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure or Decreased blood pressure - LSA has been reported as being capable of producing both an increase and a decrease in blood pressure, sometimes alternating at different points in the experience, such as during the come up or offset, although it is unclear how much of this is dependent on the seeds and variations in alkaloid contents.
- Muscle contractions & Muscle relaxation
- Muscle spasms
- Headaches
- Appetite suppression
- Orgasm suppression
- Excessive yawning
- Pupil dilation
- Increased perspiration
- Difficulty urinating
The visual effects of LSA are mostly present when large doses have been consumed. When compared to LSD and psilocin, the visual effects of LSA are proportionally mild in comparison to the intensity of its accompanying cognitive and physical effects.
The visual distortions and alterations are significantly more simplistic than open eye distortions found with other psychedelics. The effects experienced are detailed below:
- Depth perception distortions
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as mild but highly detailed and cartoon-like in appearance. The distortions are fast yet smooth in motion and fleeting in permanence. This is an inconsistently manifested effect with some people never reporting such effects.
- Colour shifting
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry that is present throughout this trip can be described as more similar in appearance to that of 4-AcO-DMT, ayahuasca and 2C-E than LSD or 2C-B. It can be comprehensively described through its variations as primarily intricate in complexity, abstract in form, organic in appearance, unstructured in organization, dimly lit, multicolored in scheme, glossy in shading, soft in edges, small in size, slow in speed, smooth in motion, rounded in corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. At higher doses, it is significantly more likely to result in states of 8B geometry over 8A geometry.
LSA produces a full range of high-level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is very consistent when taken in large doses (although this may increase the physical side effects it produces to a highly uncomfortable level). These states include:
- Transformations - These are extremely common within LSA and partially follow the content of the user's current thought process.
- Internal hallucinations (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; alterations in perspective and scenarios and plots) - Unlike LSD, LSA consistently produces moderate to high level hallucinatory states in high doses. This particular effect can be compared to a lucid dream state. The hallucinations are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, interactive in style, new experiences in content, controllable and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme. These hallucinations are complemented by a powerful enhancement of one's ability to visualize concepts. This ability eventually becomes so drawn out proportional to dose that it leads to full blown hallucinatory states that are entirely lucid and (for the most part) controllable.
- 'External hallucinations
The cognitive effects of LSA are described by many as extremely relaxing yet lucid and clear-headed in style when compared to other commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or psilocin. Although it is primarily sedating, it can produce fast-paced bursts of thought and stimulation at unpredictable intervals.
LSA produces a large number of psychedelic cognitive effects. The most prominent of these typical effects include:
- Analysis enhancement - This effect is outrospection dominant.
- Anxiety or Anxiety suppression
- Conceptual thinking
- Cognitive euphoria
- Déjà vu
- Emotion enhancement
- Empathy, affection and sociability enhancement
- Increased music appreciation - Listening to music can strongly intensify the overall experience.
- Immersion enhancement
- Language suppression - This effect is usually mild
- Increased sense of humor
- Memory suppression
- Novelty enhancement
- Autonomous voice communication
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Thought loops
- Time distortion
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience:1000 Morning Glory seeds - Rediscovering the Self
- Experience:2000mg/20 seeds – A pleasant adventure with a harsh body load
- Experience:250 seeds - Harsh body load
- Experience:800 seeds- My First Trip Ever
- Experience:Hawaiian Baby Woodrose - Five seeds from hell
Additional experience reports can be found here:
- Cannabis - When used in combination with cannabis, both the sensory and cognitive effects of LSA become intensified and extended with exceptional efficiency. This combination should be taken with extreme caution, particularly if one is not experienced with psychedelics, as it has been well-observed to amplify the anxiety, confusion and psychosis inducing aspects of both substances significantly. It is often reported that being under the influence of psychedelics temporarily reduces one's cannabis tolerance to subjectively baseline levels. Those who choose to use this combination are advised to start off with only a fraction of their usual cannabis dose and take at least 20-minute breaks between hits in order to avoid a spiralling negative reaction.
- Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the dissociative, cognitive, visuals and general hallucinatory effects become greatly enhanced. Dissociative-induced holes, spaces, and voids while under the influence of LSA have significantly more vivid visuals than dissociatives alone, as well as more intense internal hallucinations, and corresponding confusion which can spontaneously manifest as delusions and psychosis.
- MDMA - When combined with MDMA, the physical, cognitive, and euphoric effects of MDMA become amplified. The visual, physical and cognitive effects of LSA can also be intensified to the point of overwhelming euphoric pleasure manifested through uniquely pleasurable body highs, headspaces, and uniquely colorful and intricate visuals. The synergy between these substances is unpredictable, and it is advised to start with markedly lower dosages than one would take for both substances individually. Additionally, users should be aware that there are reasons to believe that this combination may result in unforeseen neurotoxic effects, so a strong sense of caution and independent research are highly advised if one decides to experiment with this combination.
- Alcohol - This interaction is not typically recommended due to alcohol’s ability to cause dehydration and nausea and physical fatigue which can negatively affect a trip if taken in moderate to high dosages. This combination is, however, reasonably safe in low doses and can often "take the edge off" a trip as well as dull its psychedelic effects in a fashion somewhat similar to benzodiazepines, albeit in a more physically draining way.
- Benzodiazepines - When used in combination with benzodiazepines, benzodiazepines can, depending on the dosage, slightly to completely reduce the intensity of the cognitive, physical and visual effects of an LSA trip. They are very efficient at stopping "bad trips" at the cost of amnesia and reduced trip intensity. Caution is advised when acquiring them for this purpose due to the very high addictive potential that benzodiazepines possess.
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with other psychedelics, each substance's physical, cognitive and visual effects intensify and synergize strongly. The synergy between those substances is unpredictable, and for this reason generally not advised. If choosing to combine psychedelics, it is recommended to start with significantly lower dosages than one would take for either substance individually.
- MAOIs - MAO inhibitors, such as passionflower and syrian rue potentiate the visual and introspective effects of psychedelics. It is advised to take caution when combining MAOIs with psychedelics because they can increase the chance of having a bad trip and may dangerously interact with other substances, such as SSRIs and stimulants, as well as some psychedelics such as MDA.
Natural plant sources
Although LSA is illegal in some countries, various seeds which contain it are readily available in many gardening stores. However, the seeds from commercial sources are often coated in some form of pesticide or methylmercury which can result in extreme nausea and body load if ingested, so are generally advised against (methods for cleaning or de-coating the seeds are available, but are typically ineffective). The types of seeds listed below are easily accessible to purchase without pesticide coatings online.
Morning glory seeds (MGS)
When using morning glory seeds, the doses for oral consumption are generally considered to be:
- Threshold: 20 - 50 seeds / 1.5 g
- Light: 50 - 100 seeds / 1.5 - 3 g
- Common: 100 - 250 seeds / 3 - 6 g
- Strong: 250 - 400 seeds / 6 - 10 g
- Heavy: 400 seeds + / 10 g +
Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds (HBWR)
Hawaiian baby woodrose is a perennial climbing vine that is native to the Indian subcontinent and has since been introduced to numerous areas worldwide including Hawaii, Africa and the Caribbean. Its seeds may be consumed for their various lysergamide alkaloids such as LSA.
When using Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds, the doses for oral consumption are generally considered to be:
- Threshold: 1 - 3 seeds
- Light: 3 - 5 seeds
- Common: 5 - 7 seeds
- Strong: 7 - 12 seeds
- Heavy: 12 seeds +
Preparation methods for this compound within our tutorial index include:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational LSA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because LSA is a research chemical with very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people within the community who have tried LSA suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
LSA is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of LSA are built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). LSA presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of LSA all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
LSA should not be used regularly for long periods of time. When used repeatedly over a short period of time, LSA's vasoconstrictive effects build up while the psychoactive effects get weaker. A common sign of vasoconstriction build up can be described as a feeling of painful or uncomfortable legs. This happens as a result of an insufficient amount of blood getting to the muscles. The upper leg muscles are the largest, most energy consuming muscles in the body and will feel sore if blood flow to them is lowered even slightly.
When HBWR, morning glory seeds or pure LSA seeds are consumed and sore legs are experienced, a break has been reported to be helpful. With LSA it can take up to 3 days of abstinence to get back to vasoconstriction baseline.
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - This combination has been reported to suppress the visual effects of LSA.
- Benzodiazepines - This combination has been reported to suppress the visual and cognitive effects of LSA.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures, particularly in those who are predisposed to them.
- Stimulants - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into uncontrollable anxiety, panic, thought loops and paranoia. This interaction may cause elevated risk of psychosis.
- Lithium - Lithium is often used as treatment for bipolar disorder. A large body of reports indicate that it can highly elevate risk of seizures and psychosis when combined with psychedelics, possibly due to its glutaminergic and GABAergic effects.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Australia: The consumption, sale, and possession of LSA is illegal.
- The Netherlands: The consumption, sale and possession of LSA is illegal.
- New Zealand: The consumption, sale and possession of LSA is illegal. The plants and seeds of morning glory species are legal to possess, cultivate, buy and distribute.
- Sweden: The consumption, sale and possession of LSA is illegal.
- United Kingdom: LSA is a Class A drug and categorized as a precursor to LSD.
- United States: As a precursor to LSD, LSA is a DEA Schedule III drug.
- Latvia - LSA itself is illegal. Although it isn't scheduled, it is controlled as an LSD structural analog. However, there is no information about LSA-containing seeds. In Latvia, plants are only illegal if they contain Schedule I controlled substances and LSA is not a Schedule 1 controlled substance.
- Responsible use
- Psychoactive substance index
- Tutorial index (LSA)
- LSA adducts
- #26. LSD-25 (LA-111, ergine, d-lysergamide) - TIHKAL | http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/tihkal/tihkal26.shtml
- Lüscher, C., & Ungless, M. A. (2006). The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs, 3(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437
- Strassman, R. J. (1984). Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(10), 577-595. PMID: 6384428
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of medical toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089
- Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086