Bromo-DragonFLY is linked to an unusually large number of hospitalizations and deaths.
Due to its extremely high potency and unstudied effects, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance without using the strongest harm reduction practices such as volumetric dosing, limiting intake to oral ingestion, and using a trip sitter. Please see this section for more details.
|Summary sheet: Bromo-DragonFLY|
|Common names||Bromo-DragonFLY, DOB-DragonFLY, B-DFLY, Dragonfly|
|Chemical class||Amphetamine / Benzodifuran|
|Routes of Administration|
Bromo-DragonFLY (also known as DOB-DragonFLY or simply B-DFLY or Dragonfly) is a novel psychedelic substance of the amphetamine and benzodifuran classes. It produces an array of extremely dose-sensitive psychedelic effects when administered. It was first synthesized in 1998 by Matthew Parker from DOB-FLY.
Bromo-DragonFLY is extremely potent and produces unusually long effects which reportedly can last up to several days. It is considered to have one-third the potency of LSD by weight, making it remarkably potent relative to the vast majority of psychedelics.
Due to its high potency and unpredictable dose-response, many reports indicate that the effects of this substance may end up being overly difficult to use safely for those who are not already experienced with hallucinogens. Specifically, given that the dosage and duration of this substance have yet not been fully determined, users are advised to start at the lowest possible, intake only through the oral routes of administration, and never re-dose during any time throughout the experience.
Very little is known about the pharmacology, metabolism and toxicity about Bromo-DragonFLY in humans. It briefly gained popularity among research chemicals circa 2010 until several deaths occurred after the substance was accidentally mislabeled and sold as 2C-B-FLY, leading to its prohibition.
Bromo-DragonFLY has never been documented as being sold on the street and has seemingly stopped production on research chemicals gray market. Due to its novelty and extremely short history of human usage, all information related to the use of this compound should be received with extreme caution. It is strongly recommended that one use the utmost harm reduction practices if choosing to take this substance.
Bromo-DragonFLY is a substituted phenethylamine, amphetamine and benzofuran, featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain and contains a bromine atom attached to carbon R4. Bromo-DragonFLY is an atypical psychedelic phenethylamine which is closely analogous to DOB; it is the difuran analog to DOB, where it incorporates the methoxy groups bound to R2 and R5 of DOB into five member furan rings fused to the central benzene ring.
Bromo-DragonFLY belongs to a group of phenethylamine derivatives referred to as the DragonFLY compounds, named for their insect-like appearance of two “wing-like” furan rings fused on the opposite sides of the central benzene ring.
It is worth noting that the R-isomer of the molecule is considerably more active than the other and as such doses must be adjusted accordingly.
The hallucinogenic effect of bromo-DragonFLY is mediated by its agonist activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. Bromo-DragonFLY also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, and is most accurately described as a non-subtype selective 5-HT2 agonist, as it is actually twice as potent an agonist for 5-HT2C receptors as for 5-HT2A, as well as being less than 5x selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2B.
It is further suggested that Bromo-DragonFLY almost completely inhibits MAO-A activity, which makes itself unable to metabolize. This is probably the cause for an abnormal duration of action.
However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
You can help by expanding or correcting it.
Compared to LSD, this compound presents a significantly less pronounced body high, reduced visual effects and more in-depth hallucinations which are comparable to mescaline or 2C-B. Despite the visual and physical effects, it reportedly tends to maintain a level of sober thought structure. As the user usually retains acute cognitive sobriety, Bromo-DragonFLY can be considered to have diminished effects of confusion and potential delusions when compared to 4-AcO-DMT, psilocin, or LSD.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
The physical effects of Bromo-DragonFLY are comparable to that of traditional phenethylamines such as 2C-B, mescaline and 2C-E.
- Stimulation & Sedation - At light dosages this compound is generally stimulating but in a gentle, non forceful manner, similar to that of 2C-B or mescaline. However, at heavy doses, one may find the stimulation rise to an uncomfortable degree. However, significant sedation may occur instead. Sedation levels are reported to be similar to that of 2C-C or 2C-T-7.
- Necrosis - When overdosed
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - The "body high" of Bromo-DragonFLY can be described as a pleasurable, warm, soft, all-encompassing and mild tingling sensation. It is comparable to that of a milder mescaline, 2C-B or 2C-E experience.
- Tactile enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Muscle cramps
- Stomach cramps
- Mouth numbing
- Olfactory hallucination
- Gustatory hallucination
- Increased salivation
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding
- Vasoconstriction - Bromo-DragonFLY is a powerful vasoconstrictor which can become dangerous during overdoses.
- Drifting (melting, breathing, morphing and flowing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, detailed in appearance, and cartoon-like in style. It is very similar the visual aspects of 2C-B or mescaline.
- Colour shifting
- Depth perception distortions
- Perspective distortions
- Symmetrical texture repetition
Bromo-DragonFLY visual geometry can be described as more similar in appearance to that of mescaline, 2C-B and 2C-D than psilocin or ayahuasca. It can be comprehensively described through its style variations as detailed in complexity, abstract in form, synthetic in style, structured in organization, brightly lit & multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, flat in edges, large in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, angular in corners, non-immersive in depth and consistent in intensity. Bromo-DragonFLY has a contradictory combination of "naturalness", but also presents a "neon and digital" observation. At higher doses, users are significantly more likely to experience a state of Level 8B visual geometry over Level 8A.
Bromo-DragonFLY produces a full range of high level hallucinatory states in a fashion that is comparable to mescaline or 2C-E. This is more consistent and reproducible than that of many other commonly used psychedelics such as 2C-B or LSD. It tends to occur at heavier doses and integrates seamlessly with the accompanying geometry. These effects generally include:
- Analysis enhancement
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Emotion enhancement
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This compound reportedly produces entactogenic effects on a level which is less intense than that of 2C-B or MDMA, but similar to that of mescaline or 2C-E.
- Memory suppression
- Increased music appreciation
- Increased libido
- Immersion enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Personal bias suppression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Time distortion
- The effects which occur during the offset of this compound are comparable to that of a mild stimulant. The experience generally feels negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and may occur because of physical and cognitive fatigue resulting from the duration and physical strain produced by this substance. Its effects commonly include:
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Bromo-DragonFLY can be considered extremely toxic at very high dosages with several deaths and numerous hospitalizations reported on overdoses. It can also have extreme vasoconstrictive effects, which can result in severe tissue damage or even limb amputation. Due to its high potency, one can easily overdose if this substance is not measured correctly ("eyeballed") or mislabeled as another substance.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational Bromo-DragonFLY do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because Bromo-DragonFLY is a research chemical with very little history of human usage.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices, such as volumetric dosing, when using this substance to ensure the accurate administration of the intended dose.
On May 7, 2011, in the United States, two young adults died and several others were hospitalized after overdosing on Bromo-DragonFLY, which they believed was 2C-E.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Bromo-DragonFLY is not habit-forming, and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of Bromo-DragonFLY is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 6 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Bromo-DragonFLY presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of Bromo-DragonFLY all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
- Cannabis - Cannabis may have an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of Bromo-DragonFLY. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid unintentional overdose.
- Stimulants - Stimulants like amphetamine, cocaine or methylphenidate affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. This combination can increase the risk of anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and thought loops. This interaction may also result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is well-documented to lower the seizure threshold and psychedelics may act to trigger seizures in susceptible individuals.
The risk of Bromo-DragonFLY overdose is unknown at the time, suggesting that there may not be a safe dosage. Non-oral routes also seem to exhibit a higher chance of overdosing, perhaps owing to differences in bioavailability, potency and unpredictability of dosage and effects. Overdose effects of typically include bizarre, delusional and sometimes violent behavior, amnesia, numbness, confusion and anxiety. The user may not be able to communicate and can be severely agitated. At appropriately high doses, more severe side effects include panic attacks, seizures, dangerously prolonged elevated heart rate, blood pressure and vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction typically develops to its peak several hours into the intoxication and will need medical assistance since Bromo-DragonFLY is known to do this for an extremely long time.
The abnormally long duration of Bromo-DragonFLY poses a significant risk by staying inside the body for weeks.
In the event of an overdose, benzodiazepines can be administered to mitigate the hyper-agitative effects. A potent vasodilator will need to be continuously administered to prevent a hypertensive emergency, necrosis, organ failure and death from the resulting hypoxia. As a result, emergency medical services should always be sought in the event of an overdose.
- Australia: Bromo-DragonFLY is nationally a Schedule 9 substance, making it illegal to possess, produce and sell.
- Canada: Bromo-DragonFLY was listed as a Schedule III Substance as of October 12, 2016, along several other research chemicals.
- Denmark: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Finland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Germany: Bromo-DragonFLY is controlled under the NpSG, as it is a derivative of 2-Phenethylamine. Production and sale is illegal. Possession and import, although illegal, is not penalized if intended for self-consumption.
- Japan: Bromo-DragonFLY is a controlled substance in Japan effective August 19th, 2015.
- Norway: Bromo-DragonFLY is considered a narcotic in Norway.
- Romania: Possession, production and sale is illegal.
- Sweden: Bromo-DragonFLY is listed as a Schedule IV substance, making it illegal to possess, produce and sell.
- Switzerland: Bromo-DragonFLY is likely illegal in Switzerland. It is unclear whether Bromo-DragonFLY is in the scope of a substituted a-methylphenethylamine under Verzeichnis E point 130, since it is not an "alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy or halide derivative of phenethylamine", while additionally containing further univalent substituents, according to the scope. It is also unclear if it can be considered a true ether analog of an ether analog of DOB, which would make it controlled under Buchstabe C. It could be considered an ether analog of an ether analog of para-bromoamphetamine, which would also make it illegal under Buchstabe C, but the extent of all these definitions are unknown.
- Turkey: Bromo-DragonFLY is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. 
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this substance under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- United States: Bromo-DragonFLY is listed as a Schedule I substance in Oklahoma.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Erowid Bromo-Dragonfly Vault : Fatalities / Deaths
- ↑ Parker, M. A., Marona-Lewicka, D., Lucaites, V. L., Nelson, D. L., Nichols, D. E. (17 December 1998). "A novel (benzodifuranyl)aminoalkane with extremely potent activity at the 5-HT2A receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 41 (26): 5148–5149. doi:10.1021/jm9803525. ISSN 0022-2623.}}
- ↑ Corazza, O., Schifano, F., Farre, M., Deluca, P., Davey, Z., Torrens, M., Demetrovics, Z., Di Furia, L., Flesland, L., Siemann, H., Skutle, A., Van Der Kreeft, P., Scherbaum, N. (May 2011). "Designer drugs on the internet: a phenomenon out-of-control? the emergence of hallucinogenic drug Bromo-Dragonfly". Current Clinical Pharmacology. 6 (2): 125–129. doi:10.2174/157488411796151129. ISSN 2212-3938.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Noble, C; Holm, NB; Mardal, M; Linnet, K (1 October 2018). "Bromo-dragonfly, a psychoactive benzodifuran, is resistant to hepatic metabolism and potently inhibits monoamine oxidase A". Toxicology letters. 295: 397–407. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.07.018. PMID 30036687.
- ↑ Thorlacius, K., Borna, C., Personne, M. (16 April 2008). "[Bromo-dragon fly--life-threatening drug. Can cause tissue necrosis as demonstrated by the first described case]". Lakartidningen. 105 (16): 1199–1200. ISSN 0023-7205.
- ↑ "| Danish man died after trip on Chinese drug". Jp.dk. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
- ↑ "Narkodød skyldtes ikke GHB". RB.no. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
- ↑ Griffin, D., Second Victim Dies After Taking Designer Drug In Konawa
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. ISSN 1556-9039.
- ↑ Anlage NpSG - Einzelnorm
- ↑ § 4 NpSG - Einzelnorm
- ↑ "危険ドラッグの成分６物質を新たに指定薬物に指定" (in Japanese). 厚生労働省 [Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW)]. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Başbakanlık Mevzuatı Geliştirme ve Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü
- ↑ https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3-1.pdf
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016