A-PHP

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Summary sheet: A-PHP
A-PHP
Molecular structure of α-PHP
Α-PHP.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names α-PHP, alpha-PHP, PV7
Substitutive name alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone
Systematic name 1-Phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Cathinone / Pyrrolidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 2 mg
Light 2 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 10 mg
Strong 10 - 20 mg
Heavy 20+ mg
Duration
Total 2 - 5 hours
Onset 2 - 8 minutes
Peak 30 - 90 minutes
Offset 1 - 4 hours
After effects 1 - 8 hours
Oral
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 8 hours
Onset 2 - 20 minutes
Peak 1 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 5 hours
After effects 1 - 48 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 0.5 - 1 mg
Light 1 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 15 mg
Strong 15 - 25 mg
Heavy 25+ mg
Duration
Total 2 - 5 hours
Onset 10 - 30 minutes
Peak 20 - 45 minutes
Offset 30 - 90 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone (also known as PV-7, alpha-PHP, A-PHP, and α-PHP) is a popular synthetic stimulant of the cathinone and pyrrolidine chemical classes that produces typical short-lived substituted cathinone effects such as euphoria, thought acceleration, disinhibition and ego inflation when administered. It is structurally related to compounds such as MDPV and is one of the successors to the designer drug cathinone analog α-PVP.

α-PHP generally comes in the form of either a fine powder or crystallized shards which users can ingest to produce powerful but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized.[citation needed] Like its research chemical cathinone predecessors, it is has gained notoriety for its tendency to induce compulsive redosing and addictive behaviors in a large percentage of its users as well the ability to readily induce delusional states and psychosis when abused.[citation needed]

α-PHP has a short history of use and is subject to much scrutiny by the media.[citation needed] It is being used and marketed as a replacement for α-PVP (known on the street as flakka) a few years following its ban, where it has come to substitute α-PVP in many parts of the world. While initially mass synthesized in Chinese industrial laboratories, a ban on α-PHP within China's borders has forced production to nations worldwide.[citation needed]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of α-PHP. It has recently become commonly marketed alongside research chemical stimulants like NEP and Hexen as a legal, grey-market alternative to a-PVP, and commercially distributed through online research chemical vendors.

Chemistry

α-PHP, or α-Pyrrolidinohexanophenone, is a compound of the substituted cathinone and substituted pyrrolidine chemical classes. Its structure is comprised of hexanal bound to a phenyl ring at the 1 position and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring at the 2 position.

α-PHP is the longer chain homolog of α-PVP, possessing an additional carbon on the alkyl side chain.

Pharmacology

The mechanism of action is unknown for α-PHP. Aside from a substantially shorter duration, it is believed to act similarly to the designer drug pentedrone and α-PVP, which both as a potent norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRI),[1] although no substantial research on the pharmacology of this compound has yet been conducted.

This means it may effectively boost the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

In comparison to its predecessor (α-PVP), this compound has been reported as inducing considerably less anxiety, uncomfortable side effects, euphoria, psychosis and having a slightly easier comedown as well as a ceiling dose that may render it less harmful to the user.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PHP use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PHP has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried α-PHP within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

α-PHP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs.[2]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other short-lived highly dopaminergic stimulants, the chronic use of α-PHP can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PHP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PHP presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PHP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

α-PHP, like other strongly dopaminergic stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[3][4] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[5][6] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[7]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • China - α-PHP is a controlled substance in China as of October 2015.[9]
  • Italy - The President of the Republic of Italy classified cathinone and all structurally derived analogues (including pyrovalerone analogues) as Narcotics on January 2012. [10]
  • Sweden - Sweden's public health agency suggested to classify α-PHP as narcotic on June 1, 2015.[11]
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[12]
  • United States - α-PHP is unscheduled and uncontrolled in the United States. However, it may fall under the scope of the Federal Analog Act if it is intended for human consumption given its similarity to A-PVP, a scheduled substance.[13]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2602954
  2. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, and 4-CMC (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073816000372
  3. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  4. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [1]
  5. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [2]
  6. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  7. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [3]
  8. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  9. http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  10. http://www.politicheantidroga.it/media/491607/decreto%20ministero%20salute%2029%20dicembre%202011.pdf
  11. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara/
  12. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  13. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0128.htm>