3-FPM

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Summary sheet: 3-FPM
3-FPM
3-FPM.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 3-FPM, PAL-593
Substitutive name 3-Fluorophenmetrazine
Systematic name 2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 mg
Light 10 - 30 mg
Common 30 - 60 mg
Strong 60 - 90 mg
Heavy 90 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
After effects 30 - 90 minutes



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 35 mg
Strong 35 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 6 hours
Onset 5 minutes






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM) is a novel stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine class. 3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant substance that was clinically used as an anorectic in Europe in the 1950s.[1] It produces its activity by increasing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain.

The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM was first reported in a patent filed in 2011.[2] Reports of human use first surfaced in early 2015 after it appeared for sale on the online research chemical market.

User reports indicate that 3-FPM produces classical stimulant effects comparable to those of amphetamine. Common effects include stimulation, enhanced focus and motivation, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Many reports describe 3-FPM as having a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect which produces less nervousness, insomnia and euphoria than other stimulants, which makes it suitable as a study-aid or productivity-enhancer.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM. Due to the lack of information on its properties, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.

Pharmacology

3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.

Below is a table showing 3-FPM's potency for inducing release (EC50) of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) in comparison to phenmetrazine:

Compounds >
Neurotransmitters V
PAL-593 Phenmetrazine
DA Release 43 87
5-HT Release 2558 3246
NE Release 30 38
[3]

Subjective effects

According to anecdotal reports, 3-FPM is considered to be more subtle in its effects when compared to other stimulants and produces less nervousness, euphoria, and insomnia than substances of the substituted amphetamine class, leading to its adoption as a study and productivity-enhancing drug as opposed to the more typical recreational stimulant with pronounced euphoric properties.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[4] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines and related compounds like the phenmetrazines.[citation needed]
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[5]
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.[citation needed]

Legal status

  • Israel: 3-FPM is illegal to buy, sell or possess in Israel as of 2017. [6]
  • Sweden: The public health agency suggested the classification of the drug as an illegal narcotic on June 1, 2015.[7]
  • Switzerland: 3-FPM was added to the list of controlled substances in December 2015.[8]
  • United Kingdom: 3-FPM is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[9]
  • United States: 3-FPM may be considered to be an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug, under the Federal Analogue Act if it is intended for human consumption.[citation needed]

See also

External links

Community

References

  1. Kalant, Oriana Josseau (1966). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction. ISBN 0-398-02511-8.
  2. Blough, B. E., Rothman, R., Landavazo, A., Page, K. M., & Decker, A. M. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,617,229. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  3. https://www.google.com/patents/US20130203752
  4. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  5. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  6. https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/Law01/P170_001.htm
  7. http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara
  8. https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/official-compilation/2015/5093.pdf
  9. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted