Cocoa

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For the cocoa plant, see Theobroma cacao (botany).
Summary sheet: Cocoa

Template:SubstanceBox/Cocoa

Cocoa pods growing on the plant.

Cocoa, or cocoa powder is a naturally occurring product from the cocoa beans of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao, known for being a main ingredient in chocolate. It is found usually in the form of cocoa beans, which are taken from the cocoa plant, or cocoa powder. Cocoa beans and bean powder contain psychoactive compounds that when ingested or insufflated act as mild to moderate stimulants. Businesses as well as companies and their subsidiaries sell cocoa powder for baking because cocoa powder is used to add chocolate flavor to baked items or doughs.

The generic name for Theobroma cacao is derived from the Greek for "food of the gods"; from θεός (theos), meaning 'god', and βρῶμα (broma), meaning 'food'.

Dosage

Orally

See dark chocolate milk for preparation.

The average doses for meditation are 20-30 g, and for cacao ceremonies 40-55 g.

  • Threshold: 10-20 grams
  • Light: 20-30 grams
  • Common: 30-40 grams
  • Strong: 40-50 grams
  • Heavy: 50-55 grams

Insufflated

Insufflated cocoa has become a popular club drug in Europe, usually as a legal and subtle replacement for MDMA or cocaine.[1] Cocoa solids is a very bulky substance. Insufflation of cocoa solids in the respiratory tract can cause inflammation.[2]

History and culture

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Snorted cocoa has became a popular party drug in Europe, usually as a legal and subtle replacement for MDMA or cocaine.[3]

Chemistry

Pharmacology

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The compounds theobromine, caffeine, and phenethylamine are the main psychoactive constituents of cocoa. Caffeine and theobromine are metabolized by xanthine oxidase and phenethylamine is metabolized mainly by monoamine oxidase B.

Theobromine has a half-life of 10 hours but over 16% may be unmodified 48 h after a single dose of 10 mg/Kg.[11]

Subjective effects

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Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects
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After effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

It is recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug. Although cocoa is relatively safe when ingested orally, snorting cocoa is very damaging to nasal passages and therefore it is not recommended to snort cocoa powder often, in large amounts, or potentially even at all.

Overdose

The LD50 of cocoa powder in humans is estimated to be around 25-100(This information has a large range of numbers (ex. 25-100) that is unjustified or unsourced and/or it is a very vague statement.) grams per kilogram of body weight.[citation needed]

Dependence and abuse potential

Because cocoa can act as a powerful (compared to other weaker stimulants on their own) stimulant, it can be considered addictive, but less so than compounds such as amphetamine and DOx compounds. Caffeine dependence and withdrawals have been documented. [12]

Dangerous interactions

monoamine oxidase inhibitors or reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase could potentially boost the actions of phenethylamine[citation needed] or, more dangerously, raise levels of monoamines to very high amounts which could cause high blood pressure or less potentially, serotonin syndrome.

Legality

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Cocoa powder can be legally obtained likely in every country, although some countries have restrictions on the sale of caffeine.

See also

External links

References

  1. "I tried sniffing cocoa to get high on a night out and it was surprisingly good". UK. 20 June 2016. 
  2. "The Different Effects in Your Body When You Snort Cacao Powder". Verywell Mind (in English). 
  3. https://thetab.com/uk/2016/06/20/i-spent-saturday-night-getting-high-sniffing-cocoa-3438
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575938/
  5. Irsfeld, M; Spadafore, M; Prüß, BM (30 September 2013). "β-phenylethylamine, a small molecule with a large impact". WebmedCentral. 4 (9). PMID 24482732. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov. 
  7. Restuccia, D; Spizzirri, UG; Puoci, F; Picci, N (2015). "Determination of biogenic amine profiles in conventional and organic cocoa-based products". Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 32 (7): 1156–63. doi:10.1080/19440049.2015.1036322. PMID 25833003. 
  8. Franco, R; Oñatibia-Astibia, A; Martínez-Pinilla, E (18 October 2013). "Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate". Nutrients. 5 (10): 4159–73. doi:10.3390/nu5104159. PMID 24145871. 
  9. van Wensem, J (January 2015). "Overview of scientific evidence for chocolate health benefits". Integrated environmental assessment and management. 11 (1): 176–7. doi:10.1002/ieam.1594. PMID 25545257. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897191/
  11. Martínez-Pinilla, E; Oñatibia-Astibia, A; Franco, R (2015). "The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption". Frontiers in pharmacology. 6: 30. doi:10.3389/fphar.2015.00030. PMC 4335269Freely accessible. PMID 25750625. 
  12. Sajadi-Ernazarova, K., & Hamilton, R. (2017, May 11). Caffeine, Withdrawal - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28613541
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