3-FPM

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Not to be confused with 3F-Phenetrazine.
Summary sheet: 3-FPM
3-FPM
3-FPM.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 3-FPM, PAL-593
Substitutive name 3-Fluorophenmetrazine
Systematic name 2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine / Phenylmorpholine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 mg
Light 10 - 30 mg
Common 30 - 60 mg
Strong 60 - 90 mg
Heavy 90 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
After effects 30 - 90 minutes



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 35 mg
Strong 35 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 6 hours
Onset 5 minutes






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Alcohol
MXE
Dissociatives
MDMA
Stimulants
DXM
25x-NBOMe
25x-NBOH
Tramadol
MAOIs

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM) is a novel stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine class. 3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant substance that was clinically used as an anorectic in Europe in the 1950s.[1] It produces its activity by increasing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain.

The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM was first reported in a patent filed in 2011.[2] Reports of human use first surfaced in early 2015 after it appeared for sale on the online research chemical market.

Subjective effects include stimulation, enhanced focus and motivation, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Users commonly report that 3-FPM produces classical stimulant effects comparable to those of amphetamine. Many reports describe 3-FPM as having a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect which produces less nervousness, insomnia and euphoria than other stimulants, which makes it suitable as a study-aid or productivity-enhancer. A few but significant number of anecdotal reports indicate some people experience serious nervous system reactions to 3-FPM[3].

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM. Due to the lack of information on its properties, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.

Pharmacology

3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.

Below is a table showing 3-FPM's potency for inducing release (EC50) of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) in comparison to phenmetrazine:

Compounds >
Neurotransmitters V
3-FPM Phenmetrazine
DA Release 43 87
5-HT Release 2558 3246
NE Release 30 38
[4]

Subjective effects

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This subjective effects section is a stub.

As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.

You can help by expanding or correcting it.

According to anecdotal reports, 3-FPM is considered to be more subtle in its effects when compared to other stimulants and produces less nervousness, euphoria, and insomnia than substances of the substituted amphetamine class, leading to its adoption as a study and productivity-enhancing drug as opposed to the more typical recreational stimulant with pronounced euphoric properties.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
User.svg

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Visual effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that 3-FPM is relatively well-tolerated, with most users encountering few side-effects at low to moderate doses. However, several users have encountered serious flu-like symptoms on the comedown of 3-FPM, consisting of muscle and joint aches, fever and chills, and headaches, sometimes with migraine auras present. This is speculated to be systemic inflammation induced by 3-FPM. Therefore new users should exercise great caution in dosing to gauge their own physiological response to 3-FPM.[citation needed]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Dependence and abuse potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following lists some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with 3-FPM should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
  • MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
  • MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
  • Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
  • Stimulants - 3-FPM may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold[5] and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.

Legal status

  • Germany: 3-FPM is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act)[7] as of November 26, 2016.[8] Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.[9]
  • Israel: 3-FPM is illegal to buy, sell or possess in Israel as of 2017.[10]
  • Sweden: The public health agency suggested the classification of the drug as an illegal narcotic on June 1, 2015.[11]
  • Switzerland: 3-FPM is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E. It was added to the list of controlled substances in December 2015.[12]
  • Turkey: 3-FPM is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.[13]
  • United Kingdom: 3-FPM is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[14]
  • United States: 3-FPM may be considered to be an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug[15], under the Federal Analogue Act if it is intended for human consumption.[16]

See also

External links

Community

References

  1. Kalant, Oriana Josseau (1966). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction. ISBN 0-398-02511-8.
  2. Blough, B. E., Rothman, R., Landavazo, A., Page, K. M., & Decker, A. M. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,617,229. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  3. [1]
  4. https://www.google.com/patents/US20130203752
  5. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183. 
  6. Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210Freely accessible. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647. 
  7. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  8. "Gesetz zur Bekämpfung der Verbreitung neuer psychoaktiver Stoffe" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  9. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  10. https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/Law01/P170_001.htm
  11. http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara
  12. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  13. https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/01/20170112-8.pdf
  14. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  15. https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/orangebook/c_cs_alpha.pdf
  16. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/21/813