|Summary sheet: 3-FPM|
|Molecular structure of 3-FPM|
|Common names||3-FPM, PAL-593|
|Routes of Administration|
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also called 3F-Phenmetrazine, 3-FPM or PAL-593) is a stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine chemical class. It produces classical stimulant effects such as stimulation, focus & motivation enhancement, thought acceleration, wakefulness, and euphoria when administered. It is a structural analog of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant drug that was clinically used as an anorectic (weight-loss agent) in Europe in the 1950s before it was later withdrawn due to concerns over misuse and addiction.
According to anecdotal reports, 3-FPM is considered to be more subtle in its effects when compared to other stimulants and produces less nervousness, euphoria, and insomnia than substances of the substituted amphetamine class, leading to its adoption as a study and productivity-enhancing drug as opposed to the more typical recreational stimulant with pronounced euphoric properties.
It should be noted that although this compound is usually sold under the name "3-FPM", it was first named in scientific literature as "PAL-593". Using this name to search for information regarding this compound may be more successful than using "3-FPM."
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM in humans. It has no history of human usage until 2014 when it began being sold as a gray-area research chemical by online vendors. Due to its likely ability to produce dependence and addiction, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.
3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, 3-FPM is usually considered to be mildly to moderately energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is considerably weaker in comparison to that of traditional recreational stimulants such as amphetamine, MDMA or cocaine. This encourages physical activities such as performing chores and repetitive tasks which would otherwise be boring and strenuous physical activities.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate - In comparison to other stimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine, 3-FPM only has a mild effect on one's heart rate.
- Stamina enhancement
- Appetite suppression - The above components are also accompanied by a suppression of appetite which is usually much less intense in strength in comparison to the appetite suppression experienced with amphetamine or methamphetamine.
- Increased perspiration
- Frequent urination
- Dry mouth
- Vasoconstriction
- Increased libido - 3-FPM is known for having aphrodisiac properties and is said to enhance sex drive and improve sexual performance.
- Pupil dilation
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA and many other stimulants.
- Analysis enhancement
- Disinhibition - While 3-FPM is often noted for its potential functional applications, higher doses can result in the kind of disinhibition seen in traditional stimulants like amphetamine or cocaine, leading to increased sociability.
- Cognitive euphoria - This component is much less intense than the euphoria experienced with other stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine, or methamphetamine.
- Ego inflation
- Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low to moderate doses as anything higher will usually impair concentration.
- Motivation enhancement - This component is experienced in a functional form even at moderate to high doses.
- Immersion enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Thought acceleration
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 3-FPM within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Stimulants - 3-FPM can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe - Both the NBOMe series and this compound induce powerful stimulation and their interaction may cause severe side effects. These can include thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and heart failure (in extreme cases).
- Alcohol - It is dangerous to combine alcohol, a depressant, with stimulants due to the risk of excessive intoxication. Stimulants decrease the sedative effect of alcohol which is the main factor most people consider when determining their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the effects of alcohol will be significantly increased, leading to intensified disinhibition as well as respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - This combination may cause increased heart rate and panic attacks.
- MXE - Increased heart rate and blood pressure may occur.
- Tramadol - This combination can increase the risk of seizures.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines and related compounds like the phenmetrazines.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.
- Israel - 3-FPM is illegal to buy, sell or possess in Israel as of 2017. 
- Sweden: The public health agency suggested the classification of the drug as an illegal narcotic on June 1, 2015.
- Switzerland: 3-FPM was added to the list of controlled substances in December 2015.
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- United States - 3-FPM may be considered to be an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug, under the Federal Analogue Act if it is intended for human consumption.
- Kalant, Oriana Josseau (1966). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction. ISBN 0-398-02511-8.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted