3-FPM

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Summary sheet: 3-FPM
3-FPM
Molecular structure of 3-FPM
3-FPM.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 3-FPM, PAL-593
Substitutive name 3-Fluorophenmetrazine
Systematic name 2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 mg
Light 10 - 30 mg
Common 30 - 60 mg
Strong 60 - 90 mg
Heavy 90 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
After effects 30 - 90 minutes



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 35 mg
Strong 35 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 6 hours
Onset 5 minutes






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also called 3F-Phenmetrazine, 3-FPM or PAL-593) is a stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine chemical class. It produces classical stimulant effects such as stimulation, focus & motivation enhancement, thought acceleration, wakefulness, and euphoria when administered. It is a structural analog of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant drug that was clinically used as an anorectic (weight-loss agent) in Europe in the 1950s before it was later withdrawn due to concerns over misuse and addiction.[1]

According to anecdotal reports, 3-FPM is considered to be more subtle in its effects when compared to other stimulants and produces less nervousness, euphoria, and insomnia than substances of the substituted amphetamine class, leading to its adoption as a study and productivity-enhancing drug as opposed to the more typical recreational stimulant with pronounced euphoric properties.

It should be noted that although this compound is usually sold under the name "3-FPM", it was first named in scientific literature as "PAL-593". Using this name to search for information regarding this compound may be more successful than using "3-FPM."

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM in humans. It has no history of human usage until 2014 when it began being sold as a gray-area research chemical by online vendors. Due to its likely ability to produce dependence and addiction, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.

Chemistry

3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.

Pharmacology

3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.

Below is a table showing 3-FPM's potency for inducing release (EC50) of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) in comparison to phenmetrazine:

Compounds >
Neurotransmitters V
PAL-593 Phenmetrazine
DA Release 43 87
5-HT Release 2558 3246
NE Release 30 38
[2]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 3-FPM within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Legal status

  • Israel - 3-FPM is illegal to buy, sell or possess in Israel as of 2017. [4]
  • Sweden: The public health agency suggested the classification of the drug as an illegal narcotic on June 1, 2015.[5]
  • Switzerland: 3-FPM was added to the list of controlled substances in December 2015.[6]
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[7]
  • United States - 3-FPM may be considered to be an analogue of phenmetrazine, a Schedule II drug, under the Federal Analogue Act if it is intended for human consumption.[citation needed]

See also

External links

References

  1. Kalant, Oriana Josseau (1966). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction. ISBN 0-398-02511-8.
  2. https://www.google.com/patents/US20130203752
  3. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  4. https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/Law01/P170_001.htm
  5. http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2015/juni/23-nya-amnen-kan-klassas-som-narkotika-eller-halsofarlig-vara
  6. https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/official-compilation/2015/5093.pdf
  7. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted