Talk:Phenmetrazine

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Summary sheet: Phenmetrazine
Phenmetrazine
Phenmetrazine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Preludin
Substitutive name Phenmetrazine
Systematic name 3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Common 20 - 80 mg
Duration
Total 4 - 8 hours
Onset 15 - 30 minutes
After effects 1 - 12 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


Phenmetrazine (also known as Preludin among many others) is a stimulant substance of the substituted amphetamine chemical class. It produces classical stimulant effects which includes stimulation, focus & motivation enhancement, thought acceleration, wakefulness, and euphoria when administered.

Phenmetrazine was first patented in Germany in 1952 by Boehringer-Ingelheim,[1][2] with some pharmacological data published in 1954.[3] It was the result of a search by Thomä and Wick for an anorectic drug without the side-effects of amphetamine.[citation needed]

In clinical use, phenmetrazine produces less nervousness, hyperexcitability, euphoria and insomnia than drugs of the amphetamine family.[4] It tends not to increase heart rate as much as other stimulants. Due to the relative lack of side effects, one study found it well tolerated in children.[5]

Phenmetrazine was clinically used in Europe as an anorectic (weight-loss agent) in the 1950s. It was later withdrawn due to concerns over misuse and addiction stemming from widespread recreational use.[6] While replaced by its prodrug phendimetrazine, it is now rarely prescribed due to similar concerns of abuse and addiction.[citation needed]

Today, phenmetrazine is no longer produced and has been superseded by amphetamine in both its pharmaceutical and street forms, as well as by its research chemical analog 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM).

Chemistry

Phenmetrazine is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines.

Phenmetrazine is comprised of an amphetamine skeleton that has been incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound -- this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group.

Phenmetrazine is the parent compound of the popular research chemical 3-fluorophenmetrazine.

Pharmacology

Phenmetrazine acts as a releasing agent of norepinephrine and dopamine with EC50 values of 50.4 ± 5.4 nM and 131 ± 11 nM, respectively.[7] It has negligible efficacy as a releaser of serotonin, with an EC50 value of only 7,765 ± 610 nM.[7] This accumulation of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft results in its euphoric and stimulating effects.

After an oral dose, about 70% of the drug is excreted from the body within 24 hours. About 19% of that is excreted as the unmetabolized drug and the rest as various metabolites.[8]

In trials performed on rats, it has been found that after subcutaneous administration of phenmetrazine, both optical isomers are equally effective in reducing food intake, but in oral administration the levo isomer is more effective. In terms of central stimulation, however, the dextro isomer is about 4 times as effective in both methods of administration.[9]

Below is a table showing phenmetrazine's potency for inducing release (EC50) of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE):


Neurotransmitter
EC50
DA Release 131 ± 11 nM
NE Release 50.4 ± 5.4 nM
5-HT Release 7,765 ± 610 nM
[7]

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
User.svg

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational phenmetrazine use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown.[citation needed]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of phenmetrazine can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of phenmetrazine develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Phenmetrazine presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of phenmetrazine all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
  • Stimulants - Phenmetrazine can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[10] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines and related compounds like the phenmetrazines.[citation needed]
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[11]
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.[citation needed]

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

See also

External links

References

  1. Albert Boehringer; Ernst Boehringer. Improvements in or relating to the preparation of substituted morpholines. GB773780.
  2. US Patent 2835669 - Process for the Production of Substituted Morpholines
  3. Thomä, O & Wick, H (1954). "Über einige Tetrahydro-1,4-oxazine mit sympathicomimetischen Eigenschaften". Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 222: 540.
  4. "Phenmetrazine Hydrochloride". J. Am. Med. Assoc. 163 (5): 357. 1957.
  5. Martel, Antonio (1957). "Preludin (Phenmetrazine) in the Treatment of Obesity". Can. Med. Assoc. J. 76 (2): 117–20. PMC 1823494 Freely accessible. PMID 13383418.
  6. Kalant, Oriana Josseau (1966). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction. ISBN 0-398-02511-8.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Rothman RB, Baumann MH (2006). "Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (17): 1845–59. PMID 17017961. https://doi.org/10.2174/156802606778249766.
  8. Anthony C Moffat, M David Osselton and Brian Widdop. Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons. ISBN 0-85369-473-7.
  9. Engelhardt, A (1961). "Studies of the Mechanism of the Anti-Appetite Action of Phenmetrazine". Biochem. Pharmacol. 8 (1): 100. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(61)90520-2.
  10. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  11. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210