Talk:Kanna

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Summary sheet: Kanna
Kanna
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Kanna, Channa, Kougoed
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold 50 mg
Light 100 - 150 mg
Common 150 - 200 mg
Strong 200 - 250 mg
Heavy 200 mg +
Duration
Total 1 - 2 hours
Onset 0 - 1 minutes
Peak 15 - 60 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours
Oral
Dosage
Threshold 50 mg
Light 500 - 750 mg
Common 750 - 1500 mg
Strong 1500 - 2000 mg
Heavy 2000 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 3 - 4 hours


Sublingual
Dosage
Threshold 50 mg
Light 50 - 100 mg
Common 100 - 150 mg
Strong 150 - 500 mg
Heavy 500 mg +
Duration
Total 1.5 - 3 hours
Onset 5 - 15 minutes
Peak 1 - 2 hours
Offset 30 - 60 minutes
After effects 2 - 6 hours
Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 50 mg
Light 50 - 75 mg
Common 75 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 125 mg
Heavy 125 mg +
Duration
Total 30 - 90 minutes
Onset 0 - 5 minutes






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Sceletium tortuosum (also known as Kanna) is a succulent plant commonly found in South Africa. Many of its psychoactive effects are similar to but less intense than the effects of empathogens such as MDMA. It can be administered orally, insufflated, subilingually, smoked, or chewed.

Kanna is sometimes used as an anti-depressant as a replacement for pharmaceutical anti-depressants. A pharmaceutical company owns a patented extract of kanna called Zembrin which may begin to be prescribed for depression, anxiety, insomnia and other psychiatric disorders in the future.

History and culture

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Kanna was used by South African pastoralists and hunter-gatherers to enhance their mood and increase their energy.

Chemistry

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The active compounds in kanna are mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and tortuosamine. It is believed that mesembrine and mesembrenone are responsible for the majority of kannas effects.

Pharmacology

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The main psychoactive effects of kanna are a result of its action as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a PDE4 inhibitor, and a VMAT2 inhibitor[1].

The VMAT2 inhibition produced by kanna is thought to be responsible for the effects of kanna as a stimulant and euphoriant, due to the increase of dopamine and noradrenaline. The potent SSRI activity and PDE4 inhibition are thought to be mainly responsible for the antidepressant, anxiolytic, and sedating effects produced by kanna.

Sites Mesembrine Mesembrenone
SERT 1.4 nM 27 nM
PDE4 7800 nM 470 nM
VMAT2 ND ND

Subjective effects

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Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.


Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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After effects
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Combination effects

  • Psychedelics - Kanna can reduce the anxiety and other negative effects experienced on psychedelics, as well as intensify the euphoria. Kanna may decrease the effects of psychedelics due to its serotonergic effects.
  • Cannabis - Kanna is reported to have strong synergy with cannabis. Commonly reported effects from this combination are intense euphoria, less anxiety, and intensified visual effects.
  • Caffeine - Kanna is reported to have synergy with caffeine, resulting in stronger stimulation with decreased anxiety.
  • Alcohol - Kanna is reported to have strong synergy with alcohol, resulting in strong feelings of euphoria.

Toxicity and harm potential

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We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Kanna is not known to be toxic on its own but it may be toxic when mixed with other substances that interact with serotonin or PDE4.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

A lethal dose of kanna on its own is not known to have occured, however it may be dangerous and even lethal when mixed with other substances.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Kanna is known to have a "reverse tolerance", similar to serotonergic antidepressants and kava kava, where in order to experience the strongest and most theraputic effects, a person must have taken kanna recently. This is often called "priming" and usually takes about a week of daily priming to experience the most intense effects. After about week of priming, continuing to use kanna at the same dose will not cause an increase or decrease in tolerance to its psychoactive effects.

Psychological dependence can be experienced with kanna, however is much less intense than the psychological dependence experienced with other stimulants such as amphetamine, and antidepressants such as fluoxetine. According to the manufacturers of Zembrin, kanna does not cause withdrawal symptoms, however some anecdotal reports describe mild physical withdrawal symptoms similar to, but less intense than the withdrawal symptoms experienced with SSRIs and stimulants.

Dangerous interactions

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Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit. Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

Legal status

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Kanna is not known to be controlled, regulated or illegal in any country except for the United States as well as the United Kingdom.

  • United States: Kanna is uncontrolled in the United States by federal law. This means all parts of the plant and its extracts are legal to cultivate, buy, possess, and distribute (sell, trade or give) without a license or prescription. If sold as a supplement, sales must conform to U.S. supplement laws. If sold for consumption as a food or drug, sales are regulated by the FDA.
    • Louisiana: Kanna is a controlled substance in Louisiana.[3] It is not controlled anywhere else in the United States.
  • United Kingdom: Kanna is illegal to produce, supply, or import under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 2016.[4]

See also

External links

Literature

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References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874115302348?via%3Dihub
  2. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  3. https://erowid.org/plants/kanna/kanna_law.shtml
  4. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted