Ethylone

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Summary sheet: Ethylone
Ethylone
Ethylone.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Ethylone, bk-MDEA, MDEC
Substitutive name 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone
Systematic name (RS)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)propan-1-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant / Entactogen
Chemical class Cathinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 80 - 100 mg
Light 75 - 150 mg
Common 150 - 225 mg
Strong 225 - 325 mg
Heavy 325 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 4 hours
Onset 15 - 45 minutes
Peak 60 - 90 minutes
Offset 60 - 120 minutes
After effects 2 - 12 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone (also known as Ethylone, MDEC and βk-MDEA) is a synthetic entactogen and stimulant of the cathinone class. It is the β-keto analog of MDEA ("Eve").

As a designer drug, ethylone is commonly sold on the street along with other cathinones like butylone or 3-MMC as a substitute or counterfeit for MDMA and/or methylone (all of which have collectively come to be referred to as "Molly") due to methylone's declining availability on the research chemicals market. However, in spite of behavioral and pharmacological similarities between ethylone, MDMA and methylone, it should be noted that the observed subjective effects of both drugs are not completely identical. [1]

Ethylone has only a short history of human use and is reported to be less potent than its relative methylone as well as possessing more classical stimulant-type as opposed to entactogenic effects.

Chemistry

Ethylone, or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone, is a synthetic molecule of the cathinone family. Cathinones are structurally similar to amphetamines in that they contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Cathinones such as ethylone are alpha-methylated phenethylamines (i.e. amphetamines) but differ from them with the addition of a ketone functional group (a carbonyl group at Rβ). Ethylone contains an ethyl substitution at RN, a substitution which is shared with drugs like MDEA, 4-MEC, and certain other stimulants and entactogens. Additionally, ethylone contains substitutions at R3 and R4 of the phenyl ring with oxygen groups. These oxygen groups are incorporated into a methylenedioxy ring through a methylene chain. Ethylone shares this methylenedioxy ring with MDA, MDAI and MDMA.

Pharmacology

Ethylone acts as a mixed reuptake inhibitor/releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.[2][3] These are the neurotransmitters in charge of pleasure, reward, motivation and focus. This is done by inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse, essentially allowing them to accumulate and be reused, causing physically stimulating and euphoric effects.

In comparison to methylone, it has approximately over 3x lower affinity for the serotonin transporter (which itself has 3x lower affinity than MDMA), while its affinity for the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters is similar.[4][5] The results of these differences in pharmacology relative to methylone is that ethylone is less potent in terms of dose, has more balanced catecholaminergic effects relative to serotonergic, and behaves more like a reuptake inhibitor like methylphenidate than a releaser like amphetamine; however, ethylone still has relatively robust releasing capabilities.[6]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ethylone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because methylone has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried ethylone within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of ethylone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of ethylone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Ethylone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of ethylone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Abuse of compounds within the stimulant class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[7] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[8][9] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[10] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[11][12]

Dangerous interactions

Although many drugs are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

  • Stimulants - Ethylone can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
  • Stimulants - Ethylone can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[13] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.

Legal issues

  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[15]
  • United Kingdom - Ethylone is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[16]
  • United States - Ethylone is unscheduled in the United States. However it could be considered an analog of methylone or MDMA, thus putting it under the scope of the Federal Analog Act.[citation needed]
  • China - As of October 2015, Ethylone is a controlled substance in China.[17]

See also

External links

References

  1. "Cathinone | Ask Dr. Shulgin Online". 
  2. Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine transporters by beta-ketoamphetamines (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10528135
  3. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299906013811
  4. "Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro" | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02145.x/pdf
  5. The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299906013811
  6. "Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro" | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02145.x/pdf
  7. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [1]
  8. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [2]
  9. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  10. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [3]
  11. Stimulant Misuse: Strategies to Manage a Growing Problem | http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf
  12. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf
  13. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  14. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  15. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  16. United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made
  17. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.