|Summary sheet: 2-FMA|
|Molecular structure of 2-FMA|
|Routes of Administration|
2-Fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA) is a synthetic ring-substituted fluorinated amphetamine compound that is commonly reported to produce classical stimulant effects such as stimulation, thought acceleration, focus and motivation enhancement when administered. It has been compared to lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) in its duration, potency and efficacy as a study aid or productivity enhancer.
2-FMA is one member in a series of modern designer fluorinated amphetamine analogs that includes synthetic compounds like 2-FA, 3-FA, 3-FEA and 4-FA which are known for their range of central nervous system stimulation and euphoria-producing effects, some of which have been gaining popularity as research chemical substitutes for traditional street stimulants.
2-FMA is commonly taken either orally or via insufflation as it has been reported to be highly unpleasant to vaporize compared to its parent compound. Despite its popularity as a research chemical study aid, little is known about any toxicity that may accompany its long-term use as a substitute for prescription stimulants.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legality
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
2-Fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA) is a synthetic molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα (i.e., amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines). 2-FMA contains a methyl group bound to the terminal amine RN of the amphetamine core, a substitution it shares with methamphetamine.
Although 2-FMA has not been formally studied on the same level as traditional amphetamines, it is safe to assume that just like other substituted amphetamines, it most likely acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it effectively increases the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove them from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
In comparison to other substituted amphetamines, 2-FMA is reported to be relatively free of side effects such as nausea, high blood pressure, anxiety and an uncomfortable offset ("comedown"). It is considered to be a functional psychoactive substance for performing general productivity tasks in a manner that is similar to dextroamphetamine or lisdexamfetamine. However, at higher doses, it typically loses its productivity and attention-enhancing effects and begins to take on a recreational character due to the distracting euphoria that can result. The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, 2-FMA is usually considered to be very energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is slightly weaker to that of methamphetamine, but stronger than that of modafinil, caffeine, and methylphenidate. It is similar, yet distinct, from the stimulation experienced on MDMA, encouraging physical activities such as dancing, socializing, running, or cleaning. The particular style of stimulation which 2-FMA presents can be described as forced. This means that, at higher dosages, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntary bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in extreme shaking of the entire body, unsteadiness of the hands, and a general loss of fine motor control.
- Physical euphoria
- Stamina enhancement
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Appetite suppression
- Dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- Increased bodily temperature
- Increased perspiration
- Pupil dilation - This effect is typically experienced only at high dosages and is more prominent on the comedown.
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- Temporary erectile dysfunction
- Restless legs
The visual effects of 2-FMA are usually less consistent and only mildly noticeable at higher dosages. They are somewhat comparable to deliriants and occur more readily in darker areas.
- Drifting (breathing and morphing) - This effect is usually subtle and barely noticeable and only occurs at higher dosages or when combined with cannabis.
- Brightness alteration - 2-FMA can make spaces seem brighter as a result of its pupil dilating effects.
- Transformations - This effect occurs very rarely, and typically only when the user has taken high doses, is coming down, or has been awake for unusually long periods. It is usually very mild when it does occur.
- Analysis enhancement
- Anxiety & Paranoia - This effect typically occurs with overly high doses or after redosing and staying awake for extended periods of time.
- Cognitive euphoria
- Compulsive redosing
- Ego inflation
- Emotionality suppression
- Focus enhancement
- Increased libido
- Increased music appreciation
- Motivation enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Thought acceleration
- Thought organization
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2-FMA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 2-FMA has a very limited history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 2-FMA within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 2-FMA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 2-FMA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2-FMA presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 2-FMA all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
The use of compounds within the amphetamine chemical class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Stimulants - 2-FMA can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe - Both the NBOMe series and this compound induce powerful stimulation and their interaction may cause severe side effects. These can include thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and heart failure (in extreme cases).
- Alcohol - It is dangerous to combine alcohol, a depressant, with stimulants due to the risk of excessive intoxication. Stimulants decrease the sedative effect of alcohol which is the main factor most people consider when determining their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the effects of alcohol will be significantly increased, leading to intensified disinhibition as well as respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - This combination may cause increased heart rate and panic attacks.
- MXE - Increased heart rate and blood pressure may occur.
- Tramadol - This combination can increase the risk of seizures.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
2-FMA is currently a gray area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal gray area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with intent to sell or consume.
- Canada: 2-FMA would be considered Schedule I as it is an analogue of Amphetamine.
- China - As of October 2015 2-FMA is a controlled substance in China.
- Germany: On December 13, 2014, 2-FMA was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.
- New Zealand: 2-FMA is an amphetamine analogue, so is a Schedule 3 controlled substance in New Zealand.
- United Kingdom: 2-FMA is considered a Class A drug as a result of the amphetamine analogue clause of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
- Responsible use
- Research chemical
- Substituted amphetamine
- http://drugs.tripsit.me/2-fma Tripsit Factsheets - 2FMA
- Isomeric fluoro-methoxy-phenylalkylamines: a new series of controlled-substance analogues (designer drugs). (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15639609
- Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074881
- Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
- Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19) |http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-12.html#h-28
- "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm
- Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Legislation.gov.uk) |http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2/part/I