2-FMA

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Summary sheet: 2-FMA
2-FMA
2-FMA.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 2-FMA
Substitutive name 2-Fluoromethamphetamine
Systematic name (RS)-1-(2-Fluorophenyl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 30 mg
Strong 30 - 60 mg
Heavy 60 mg +
Duration
Total 7 - 9 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 15 - 40 minutes
Peak 2.5 - 4 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 4 - 12 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

2-Fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA) is a novel stimulant substance of the amphetamine class. 2-FMA is a member of a group known as substituted amphetamines, which include compounds like 2-FA, 3-FA, and 4-FMA. 2-FMA produces its stimulant effects through action at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors in the brain.

2-FMA is commonly taken either orally or via insufflation and is reported to be highly unpleasant to vaporize. It is commonly compared to lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) in its duration, potency and efficacy as a study or productivity aid. Despite its popularity as a research chemical study aid, little is known about the effects that may accompany its long-term use as a substitute for prescription stimulants.

Typical effects include those of a classical stimulant such as stimulation, enhanced focus and euphoria. A substantial increase in adverse effects like high blood pressure and increased heart rate are often reported for dosages above the heavy dosage range.

2-FMA is sometimes sold on the online research chemical market.[1][2] It is strongly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

2-Fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA) is a synthetic molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα (i.e., amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines). 2-FMA contains a methyl group bound to the terminal amine RN of the amphetamine core, a substitution it shares with methamphetamine.

2-FMA is the 2-position fluorinated analog of methamphetamine and the N-methylated homolog of 2-FA (2-fluoroamphetamine).

Pharmacology

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This pharmacology section is incomplete.

You can help by adding to it.

Although 2-FMA has not been formally studied on the same level as traditional amphetamines, it is thought that it acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it effectively increases the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove them from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

In comparison to other substituted amphetamines, 2-FMA is reported to be relatively free of side effects such as nausea, high blood pressure, anxiety and an uncomfortable offset ("comedown"). It is considered to be a functional stimulannt for performing general productivity tasks in a manner similar to amphetamine or lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). However, at higher doses, it typically loses its productivity and focus-enhancing effects and begins to take on a recreational character due to the distracting euphoria that it can produce.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2-FMA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 2-FMA has a very limited history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried 2-FMA suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself or using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 2-FMA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 2-FMA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2-FMA presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 2-FMA all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

The use of compounds in the amphetamine class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[3][4] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[4][5] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[4]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. A combination that appears to be safe in low doses can still increase the risk of injury or death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume.

  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[6] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[7]
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

2-FMA is currently a gray area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal gray area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Canada: 2-FMA would be considered Schedule I as it is an analogue of Amphetamine.[8]
  • China: As of October 2015 2-FMA is a controlled substance in China.[9]
  • Germany: On December 13, 2014, 2-FMA was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.[10]
  • New Zealand: 2-FMA is an amphetamine analogue, so is a Schedule 3 controlled substance in New Zealand.[11]
  • United Kingdom: 2-FMA is considered a Class A drug as a result of the amphetamine analogue clause of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.[12]

See also

External links

References

  1. Isomeric fluoro-methoxy-phenylalkylamines: a new series of controlled-substance analogues (designer drugs). (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15639609
  2. Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074881
  3. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
  5. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  6. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  7. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  8. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19) |http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-12.html#h-28
  9. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  10. Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm
  11. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1975/0116/latest/whole.html#DLM436576
  12. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Legislation.gov.uk) |http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2/part/I