2-FMA

From PsychonautWiki
(Redirected from 2fluoromethamphetamine)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Summary sheet: 2-FMA
2-FMA
2-FMA.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 2-FMA
Substitutive name 2-Fluoromethamphetamine
Systematic name (RS)-1-(2-Fluorophenyl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 30 mg
Strong 30 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Duration
Total 7 - 9 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Come up 15 - 40 minutes
Peak 2.5 - 4 hours
Offset 2 - 3 hours
After effects 4 - 12 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 30 mg
Strong 30 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Come up 10 - 20 minutes
Peak 1 - 3 hours
Offset 1.5 - 3 hours
After effects 2 - 4 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Alcohol
GHB
GBL
Opioids
Cocaine
Caffeine
Ketamine
Methoxetamine
Psychedelics
ArrayC-x
Cannabis
DMT
LSD
Mescaline
Psilocybin mushrooms
DXM
PCP
Array5x-NBOMe
ArrayC-T-x
5-MeO-xxT
DOx
Tramadol
aMT
MAOIs


2-Fluoromethamphetamine (also known as 2-FMA) is a novel stimulant substance of the amphetamine class. It is a structural analog of methamphetamine and is related to 2-FA, 3-FA, and 4-FMA. 2-FMA produces its stimulant effects through action at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors in the brain.

2-FMA first appeared for sale on the online research chemical market in the mid-2010s.[citation needed] It appeared alongside other fluorinated amphetamines like 2-FA and 4-FA. It appears to be unknown in the clinical and research literature.

Subjective effects include stimulation, focus enhancement, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria. It is commonly taken either orally or via insufflation and is reported to be highly unpleasant to vaporize. 2-FMA is commonly compared to lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) in its duration, potency and efficacy as a study or productivity aid. A substantial increase in adverse effects like high blood pressure and increased heart rate are often reported for dosages above the heavy dosage range.

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 2-FMA. It is strongly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

2-Fluoromethamphetamine (2-FMA) is a synthetic molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα (i.e., amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines). 2-FMA contains a methyl group bound to the terminal amine RN of the amphetamine core, a substitution it shares with methamphetamine.

2-FMA is the 2-position fluorinated analog of methamphetamine and the N-methylated homolog of 2-FA (2-fluoroamphetamine).

Pharmacology

Pill bottle-o.png

This pharmacology section is incomplete.

You can help by adding to it.

Although 2-FMA has not been formally studied on the same level as traditional amphetamines, it is thought that it acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it effectively increases the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove them from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

In comparison to other substituted amphetamines, 2-FMA is reported to be relatively free of side effects such as nausea, high blood pressure, anxiety and an uncomfortable offset ("comedown"). It is considered to be a functional stimulant for performing general productivity tasks in a manner similar to amphetamine or lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). However, at higher doses, it typically loses its productivity and focus-enhancing effects and begins to take on a recreational character due to the distracting euphoria that it can produce. Majority of users report through anecdotal reports that this has a ceiling effect with high dose (Heavy+) ranges where many report of the uncomfortable effects from stimulants when passing or entering the strong-heavy dose range.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature which relies on collected anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be taken with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses (common+) are more likely to induce the full spectrum of reported effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
Child.svg

Visual effects
Eye.svg

Cognitive effects
User.svg

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Ambulance2.png

This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2-FMA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 2-FMA has a very limited history of human usage.

Anecdotal reports from those who have tried 2-FMA suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself or using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Dependence and abuse potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 2-FMA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 2-FMA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2-FMA presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 2-FMA all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

The use of compounds in the amphetamine class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[1][2] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[2][3] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[2]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Alcohol - Drinking alcohol on stimulants is considered risky because it reduces the sedative effects of the alcohol that the body uses to gauge drunkenness. This often leads to excessive drinking with greatly reduced inhibitions, increasing the risk of liver damage and increased dehydration. The effects of stimulants will also allow one to drink past a point where they might normally pass out, increasing the risk. If you do decide to do this then you should set a limit of how much you will drink each hour and stick to it, bearing in mind that you will feel the alcohol and the stimulant less.
  • GHB/GBL - Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of sedatives. If the stimulant wears off first then the depressant effects of the GHB/GBL may overcome the user and cause respiratory arrest.
  • Opioids - Stimulants increase respiration rate allowing a higher dose of opiates. If the stimulant wears off first then the opiate may overcome the patient and cause respiratory arrest.
  • Cocaine - This combination of stimulants will increase strain on the heart. It is not favored as cocaine has a mild blocking effect on dopamine releasers like amphetamine.
  • Caffeine - This combination of stimulants is generally considered unnecessary and may increase strain on the heart, as well as potentially causing anxiety and physical discomfort.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol and stimulants both increase the risk of seizures.
  • DXM - Both substances raise heart rate, in extreme cases, panic attacks caused by these substances have led to more serious heart issues.
  • Ketamine - No unexpected interactions. Likely to increase blood pressure but not an issue with sensible doses. Moving around on high doses of this combination may be ill advised due to risk of physical injury.
  • PCP - Increases risk of tachycardia, hypertension, and manic states.
  • Methoxetamine - Increases risk of tachycardia, hypertension, and manic states.
  • Psychedelics - Increases risk of anxiety, paranoia, and thought loops.
    • 25x-NBOMe - Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation that when combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and, in extreme cases, heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
    • 2C-x
      • 2C-T-x
    • 5-MeO-xxT
    • aMT
    • Cannabis - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops and paranoia which can lead to negative experiences.
    • DMT
    • DOx
    • LSD
    • Mescaline
    • Psilocybin mushrooms
  • MAOIs - MAO-B inhibitors can increase the potency and duration of phenethylamines unpredictably. MAO-A inhibitors with amphetamine can lead to hypertensive crises.

Legal status

Handcuffs-300px.png

This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

2-FMA is currently a gray area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal gray area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with the intent to sell or consume.

  • Canada: 2-FMA would be considered Schedule I as it is an analogue of Amphetamine.[4]
  • China: As of October 2015 2-FMA is a controlled substance in China.[5]
  • Germany: 2-FMA is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I)[6] as of December 13, 2014.[7] It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.[8]
  • New Zealand: 2-FMA is an amphetamine analogue, so is a Schedule 3 controlled substance in New Zealand.[9]
  • Switzerland: 2-FMA is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.[10]
  • Turkey: 2-FMA is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.[11] [12]
  • United Kingdom: 2-FMA is considered a Class A drug as a result of the amphetamine analogue clause of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.[13]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/emerging-trends
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Library.
  3. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  4. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19) |http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-12.html#h-28
  5. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  6. "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  7. "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  8. "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  9. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1975/0116/latest/whole.html#DLM436576
  10. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  11. https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3.htm
  12. https://resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2014/01/20140125-3-1.pdf
  13. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Legislation.gov.uk) |http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2/part/I