25D-NBOMe

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Members of the NBOMe series have been linked to numerous overdoses and fatalities.[1][2][3]

It is strongly discouraged to insufflate (snort) or take higher doses of these compounds. Please see this section for more details.

Summary sheet: 25D-NBOMe
25D-NBOMe
25D-NBOMe.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 25D-NBOMe
Substitutive name 2C-D-NBOMe
Systematic name 1-2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Phenethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.





Sublingual
Dosage
Threshold 300 µg
Light 300 - 800 µg
Common 800 - 1000 µg
Strong 1000 - 1200 µg
Heavy The NBOMe series can be fatal at heavy doses.[4][5][6]
Duration
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Peak 1 - 2 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects > 6 hours
Insufflated
Dosage
Heavy The NBOMe series can be fatal when insufflated.[4][5][6] It is strongly discouraged.
Duration






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
ArrayC-T-X
5-MeO-xxt
Caffeine
Cannabis
DOx
MAOIs
MDMA
MXE
Amphetamines
Cocaine
DXM
Tramadol
aMT
Lithium]


25D-NBOMe (also known as 2C-D-NBOMe) is novel psychedelic substance of the phenethylamine class. 25D-NBOMe produces an array of primarily visual and stimulating psychedelic effects when administered.

The name 25D-NBOMe, which short-hand for 2C-D-NBOMe, is a derivative of the phenethylamine psychedelic 2C-D. It was first synthesized in 2011 by Martin Hansen[7] and subsequently had its activity explored in 2012 and 2014, where it was established to be a potent agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor that produces effects similar to other members of the 25x-NBOMe series.[8][9]

It is worth noting that compounds of the NBOMe family are not orally active and should be administered sublingually by placing and letting it absorb into one's mouth over a period of 15-25 minutes. 25D-NBOMe can also be vaporized and inhaled to cause significantly more rapid and powerful effects as well as a shorter duration. However, this route of administration is highly advised against due to the difficulties of measuring and handling substances that are both active in the microgram range as well as having a low therapeutic index.

25D-NBOMe has no history of human use prior to being sold online as a designer drug in 2010.[citation needed] Extremely little is known about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 25D-NBOMe in humans, and its closely related analogs like 25I-NBOMe has been associated with many deaths and hospitalizations.[citation needed] Along with its highly sensitive dose-response and unpredictable effects, many reports also suggest that this substance may be overly difficult to use safely. Therefore it is highly advised to approach this poorly understood psychedelic substance with the proper amount of precaution and harm reduction practices when using it.

Chemistry

25D-NBOMe, or 2C-D-NBOMe, is a serotonergic N-benzyl derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic known as 2C-D. 25D-NBOMe is a substituted phenethylamine with methoxy groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a methyl group attached to carbon R4. It differs from 2C-D structurally through a substitution on the amine (NH2) with a 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) group as shown in the image to the right. 25D-NBOMe shares this 2-methoxybenzyl substitution with other chemicals of the NBOMe family. This NBOMe addition contains a methoxy ether CH3O- bound to a benzene ring at R2.

Pharmacology

25D-NBOMe has efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor where it acts as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive. The addition of the NBOMe group to the structure results in a sixteen-fold increase in potency when compared to 2C-D, allowing even the most extreme of doses to fit in liquid form onto tabs and blotter paper, which people often mistake for LSD.

Subjective effects

{Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

25D-NBOMe is a very new substance, and very little is known about its pharmacological risks or its interaction with other substances. The LD50 has not yet been determined.[10] Due to 25D-NBOMe's extreme potency, it should not be insufflated (snorted) as this method of administration appears to have led to several deaths from other NBOMe compounds in the past year.[11]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

In terms of its addictive potential, 25D-NBOMe has not been studied formally but many users experience a self-regulating quality. Also, due to its immediate tolerance build up, which lasts up to 2 - 3 weeks after the experience, it is difficult to use this substance compulsively.

Overdose

Due to the very high potency and seemingly unpredictable effects the margin between a normal and an overdose of NBOMe compounds is extremely small when compared to many other substances. The exact toxic dose is unclear since it seems to depend a lot on personal physiology, rather than predominantly dosage, but various anecdotal reports suggest dangerous side effects start to show up when exceeding 1000 μg and it possibly becoming lethal for the more sensitive people at roughly 2000 μg. Reports of other people surviving much higher doses, sometimes even without any major side effects has been documented as well. There is also the uncertainty of dosage on blotter paper since it is rather difficult to lay such an exact dosage. Insufflating, vaporizing or drinking tinctures of this substance is highly discouraged because of this and has been tied to many documented deaths[12][13][14].

The overdose effects of NBOMes are typically a dangerously high heart rate, blood pressure, hyperthermia and significant vasoconstriction[citation needed] also accompanied by confusion, delusions, panic attacks, aggressive behavior, numbness or pain, amnesia and often seizures. The risks in an overdose include anything from organ failure to cardiac arrest and death[citation needed]. There are also multiple reports of people lethally injuring themselves or falling to death[15][16]. Benzodiazepines or antipsychotics can help with the psychological effects during an overdose although medical attention should always be called in even a possible overdose of 25I-NBOMe.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit. Due to the highly unpredictable nature of the NBOMe series, it is generally advised to avoid mixing them with other psychoactive substances.

  • 2C-T-X - The 2C-T-X phenethylamines can be unpredictable in their interactions and the NBOMes are known to be unpredictable even alone. As a result, this combination should be avoided.
  • 5-MeO-xxt - The 5-MeO tryptamines can be unpredictable in their interactions and the NBOMes are known to be unpredictable even alone. As a result, this combination should be avoided.
  • Amphetamines - Amphetamines and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction and, in extreme cases, heart failure. The anxiogenic and focusing effects of stimulants are also not good in combination with psychedelics as they can lead to unpleasant thought loops. NBOMes are known to cause seizures and stimulants can increase this risk.
  • aMT
  • Caffeine - Caffeine can bring out the natural stimulation from psychedelic drugs to make it uncomfortable. High doses can cause anxiety which is hard to handle while tripping.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of psychedelics. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Cocaine - Cocaine and NBOMes both provide considerable stimulation. When combined they can result in severe vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and in extreme cases heart failure.
  • DOx
  • DXM
  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • MAOIs - MAO-B inhibitors can increase the potency and duration of phenethylamines unpredictably.
  • MDMA
  • MXE - As an NMDA antagonist, MXE potentiates NBOMes which can be unpleasantly intense.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol is well known to lower seizure threshold and NBOMes have also shown a tendency to cause severe seizures

Legality

  • Austria: 25D-NBOMe is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[17]
  • Sweden: 25D-NBOMe is classed as Schedule I[18]
  • United Kingdom - 25D-NBOMe is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the N-benzylphenethylamine catch-all clause.[19]
  • Latvia: 25D-NBOMe is a Schedule I controlled substance.[20]
  • Canada: 25D-NBOMe would be considered Schedule III as it is a derivative of 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[21]

See also

External links

References

  1. 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  2. 25C-NBOMe (2C-C-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cc_nbome/2cc_nbome_death.shtml
  3. Other or Unknown NBOMe Compound Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/nbome_death.shtml
  4. 4.0 4.1 25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  5. 5.0 5.1 25C-NBOMe (2C-C-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cc_nbome/2cc_nbome_death.shtml
  6. 6.0 6.1 Other or Unknown NBOMe Compound Fatalities / Deaths by Erowid | https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/nbome_death.shtml
  7. Hansen, M. Design and Synthesis of Selective Serotonin Receptor Agonists for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of the Brain. PhD Thesis, University of Copenhagen, 2011. | https://bitnest.netfirms.com/external.php?id=%2518%253A3%25172%251BE%2524K%255BG%2521%2524%257D%2504%2504V
  8. Casale, John F.; Hays, Patrick A. (2012). "Characterization of Eleven 2,5-Dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine (NBOMe) Derivatives and Differentiation from their 3- and 4-Methoxybenzyl Analogues - Part I" (PDF). Microgram Journal. 9 (2): 84–109. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  9. Hansen, M.; Phonekeo, K.; Paine, J. S.; Leth-Petersen, S.; Begtrup, M.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Kristensen, J. L. (2014). "Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 5 (3): 243–9. PMC 3963123 Freely accessible. PMID 24397362. https://doi.org/10.1021/cn400216u
  10. "Fatalities / Deaths". Erowid. April 26 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. | http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  11. http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome.shtml/
  12. https://erowid.org/chemicals/2ci_nbome/2ci_nbome_death.shtml
  13. https://erowid.org/chemicals/2cc_nbome/2cc_nbome_death.shtml
  14. https://erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/nbome_death.shtml
  15. nbome_death_news__i2013e0190_disp.jpg
  16. nbome_death_news__i2013e0191_disp.jpg
  17. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  18. Läkemedelsverkets författningssamling - http://www.lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS_2013-15.pdf
  19. United Kingdom. (2014). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2014/1106). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved July 5, 2017, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/1106/made
  20. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2,5-Dimetoksifeniletānamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  21. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19) |http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-12.html#h-28