Due to its unusually long half-life and extreme potency, it is strongly discouraged to abuse this substance in high doses, multiple days in a row, or in combination with other substances known to increase the risk of psychosis. Please see this section for more details.
|Summary sheet: Desoxypipradrol|
|Common names||Desoxypipradol, 2-DPMP, Ivory Wave|
|Routes of Administration|
Developed by Ciba in the 1950s and researched for applications such as the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD; it was dropped from development after the related drug methylphenidate was developed by the same company. Methylphenidate was felt to be the superior drug for treating ADHD due to its shorter duration of action and more predictable pharmacokinetics, and while desoxypipradrol was researched for other applications (such as facilitation of rapid recovery from anesthesia), its development was not continued. However, the hydroxylated derivative pipradrol was introduced as a clinical drug indicated for depression, narcolepsy and cognitive enhancement in organic dementia.
As with methylphenidate and pipradol, it is thought to act as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), . Of these three piperidines, it is noteworthy that desoxypipradrol has the longest elimination half-life, as it is a highly lipophilic molecule lacking polar functional groups that are typically targeted by metabolic enzymes, giving it an unusually long duration of action when compared to most stimulants. This property combined with its ultra-high potency (starting at 2mg) has given this compound a reputation for being extremely dangerous when abused or mishandled.
Desoxypipradrol is rarely if ever found on the streets, but instead typically sold as a gray market research chemical through online vendors.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal status
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Desoxypipradrol is a synthetic stimulant of the substituted piperidine class. It contains a substituted phenethylamine skeleton with an additional phenyl ring bound to Rα. The terminal amino group of the phenethylamine chain is incorporated into a piperidine ring. As a result of lacking polar functional groups it is a highly lipophilic molecule, giving it an extremely long-lasting multi-day duration of action that is rarely observed in stimulant drugs -- notably with the exception of MDPV.
Desoxypipradrol primarily acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), but one with an unusually high potency, extreme duration and unpredictable dose-response for a stimulant drug. These risks likely owe themselves to its abnormally high lipophilicity and long elimination half-life, which among other things likely increases the relative risk it has in triggering states of stimulant psychosis when abused, with which it has been demonstrated in humans to be an uncommonly low threshold.
Desoxypipradrol possesses an unusually high potency, extreme duration and unpredictable dose-response for a stimulant drug. However, due to the relative "cleanness" or subtleness of the stimulation some reports indicate a tendency in users to redose it compulsively until dangerous amounts end up becoming consumed, which can lead to overdose, hospitalizations, and even fatalities. Those who wish to experiment with this compound are advised to use proper harm-reduction practices and approach with this substance with extreme caution (such as not redosing, and using volumetric dosing techniques).
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, desoxypipradrol is usually considered to be energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is stronger but much subtler than that of amphetamine or methamphetamine and stronger than that of modafinil and caffeine. At lower to moderate doses, it encourages general productivity but at higher dosages may encourages physical activities such as dancing, socializing, running, or cleaning. The particular style of stimulation which desoxypipradrol presents is not forced, however, but clean and lucid with manic undertones.
- Spontaneous physical sensations
- Increased heart rate - Early reports suggest that the effects of desoxypipradrol on heart rate and blood pressure are unusually weak.
- Appetite suppression
- Increased perspiration - Compared to classical stimulants, desoxypipradrol seems to involve less peripheral nervous system stimulation which can make it feel "cleaner" or more lucid and involve less bodily effects like sweating or cramping.
- Teeth grinding - Compared to amphetamines and other stimulants, this component is largely absent due to the subtleness of desoxypipradrol's style of stimulation.
- Restless leg syndrome
- Vasoconstriction - This component is minimal compared to many other stimulants and stimulating drugs.
- Stamina enhancement
- Bodily control enhancement
- Acuity enhancement - This effect is unpredictable and typically seen at moderate to high doses, though it can randomly happen at the lower doses as well. When it does occur, it tends to be subtler than some other visual acuity enhancing stimulants like MDMA or methamphetamine.
- Brightness alteration - This effect is unpredictable and typically seen at moderate to high doses, though it can randomly happen at the lower doses as well. When it does occur, it tends to be subtler than some other visual brightness altering stimulants like MDMA or methamphetamine.
- Drifting - This effect is unpredictable and typically seen at moderate to high doses, though it can randomly happen at the lower doses as well. When it does occur, it tends to be subtler than some other vision-altering stimulants like MDMA or methamphetamine.
- Euphoria - In comparison to other stimulants such as amphetamine, this effect feels far less forced and more unintrusive.
- Focus enhancement - This component is most effective at low to moderate dosages as anything higher will usually impair concentration.
- Memory enhancement
- Novelty enhancement
- Thought acceleration
- Thought organization
- Thought connectivity
- Analysis enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Immersion enhancement
- Stamina enhancement
- Ego inflation
- Emotion suppression - This effect is typically seen at medium to high doses, and is similar to the emotion suppression that can be exhibited by use of methylphenidate.
- Information processing suppression
- Language suppression
- Anxiety suppression - This effect is occasionally seen, typically at lower doses, and tends to decrease as one increases the dose.
- Thought deceleration - This effect is typically seen with higher doses, but can happen at lower doses as well in an unpredictable manner. At lower to medium doses, it is more common to see thought acceleration in effect.
- Thought disorganization - This effect is typically seen with higher doses, but can happen at lower doses as well in an unpredictable manner. At lower to medium doses, it is more common to see thought organization in effect.
- Compulsive redosing
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Desoxypipradrol may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma desoxypipradrol concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >100 μg/L in intoxicated patients and >600 μg/L in victims of acute overdosage.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
In terms of its tolerance, desoxypipradrol can be used for multiple days in a row for extended periods of time. Acute tolerance to many of the effects of desoxypipradrol develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). desoxypipradrol presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of desoxypipradrol all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of desoxypipradrol can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
User reports suggest that compared to many other stimulants, desoxypipradrol has some unique and atypical hazards that can accompany its misuse -- especially when it is eye-balled, not dosed volumetrically, or otherwise handled without the proper degree of caution. Desoxypipradrol, like other stimulants, increases dopamine levels in the brain which can lead to severe manic psychosis in the short-term in addition to persisting dopamine receptor down regulation in the long-term.
User reports indicate that chronic abuse or single exposure overdose of desoxypipradrol can potentially lead to psychosis more readily than the vast majority of stimulants. Psychotic symptoms from desoxypipradrol can include hearing voices, visual hallucinations, urges to harm oneself, severe anxiety, mania, grandiosity, paranoid delusions, confusion, increased aggression, and irritability.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
- China: As of October 2015 2-DPMP is a controlled substance in China.
- United States: Desoxypipradrol is unscheduled in the United States, and thus legal to possess and import. However, it is an analog of pipradol which is a Schedule IV Controlled Substance.
As of 4 November 2010, the UK Home Office announced a ban on the importation of 2-DPMP, following a recommendation from the ACMD.
Prior to the import ban, desoxypipradrol was sold as a 'legal high' in several products, most notably "Ivory wave". Its use lead to several Emergency Department visits which prompted the UK government to commission a review from the ACMD. One man had ingested nearly 1 gram of the drug which may have been fatal without sedation with an anaesthetic dose of a benzodiazepine administered in accident and emergency.
The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs stated in their report that:
- "there are serious harms associated with 2-DPMP... typically prolonged agitation (lasting up to 5 days after drug use which is sometimes severe, requiring physical restraint), paranoia, hallucinations and myoclonus (muscle spasms/twitches)."
2-DPMP was due to become a class B drug on 28 March 2012, but the bill was scrapped as two steroids deemed not to be abusable were included in the bill but were later recommended to remain uncontrolled. There was a new discussion about its fate on April 23, 2012, where it was decided that the bill would be rewritten and 2-DPMP would still be banned. It was also decided that the bill would be a blanket ban of related chemicals.
Desoxypipradrol was eventually made a class B drug and placed in Schedule I on 13 June 2012. There were no recorded deaths from the drug between the banning of its import and the banning of its possession. "Esters and ethers of pipradrol" were controlled with the same amendment as class C drugs.
- "Comparison of the effects of the isomers of amphetamine, methylphenidate and deoxypipradrol on the uptake of l-3Hnorepinephrine and 3Hdopamine by synaptic vesicles from rat whole brain, striatum and hypothalamus" | PMID 39160
- Template:Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Import ban on psychoactive drug UK Home Office
- "ACMD advice on 'Ivory Wave'" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
- "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
- "Government accepts ACMD's advice to schedule D2PM, 2-DPMP and phenzepam" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
- "ACMD letter on further advice on the classification of two steroidal substances - February 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- "Draft Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012". UK Home Office. 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
- "A Change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of pipradrol-related compounds and phenazepam". UK Home Office. 7 Jun 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30.