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MDPV may cause psychosis, mania and addiction at a significantly higher rate than other stimulants.

Due to its unusually long duration, extreme potency, and compulsive nature, it is strongly discouraged to abuse this substance in high doses, multiple days in a row, or in combination with other drugs known to increase the risk of psychosis. Please see this section for more details.

Summary sheet: MDPV
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names MDPV, Bath Salts, NRG-1
Substitutive name 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone
Systematic name 1-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant / Entactogen
Chemical class Cathinone / MDxx / Pyrrolidinophenone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 2 mg
Light 4 - 8 mg
Common 8 - 14 mg
Strong 14 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Total 2 - 7 hours
Onset 15 - 30 minutes
Peak 1 - 4 hours
Offset 0.5 - 2 hours
After effects 2 - 48 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (also known as MDPV, Bath Salts, Monkey Dust, among many others) is a novel lesser-known stimulant substance of the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. It is known to be one of the most powerful and potent stimulants. MDPV is thought to act primarily as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).

MDPV was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim.[1] It was claimed to have potential to be an alternative for racemic amphetamine and, despite showing some desirable qualities such as reduced toxicity as compared to amphetamine, was chosen to not be developed as a medicinal drug.[2]

MDPV remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004, when it was reportedly first made available to the public as a designer drug. Products labeled as "bath salts" containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing strategy of Spice and K2 as incense.[citation needed]

Subjective effects include stimulation, disinhibition, increased libido, appetite suppression, and powerful euphoria.

Several incidents of psychological and physical harm have been attributed to the use of MDPV, including an unusually large number of fatalities. A total of 107 non-fatal intoxications and 99 analytically confirmed deaths related to MDPV between September 2009 and August 2013 were reported by nine European countries.[3]

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.


MDPV, or 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound a-PVP, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence.[1]

However, despite some shared structural features, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxy phenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily classical stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.[4]

MDPV is structurally related to cathinone, an active alkaloid found in the khat plant, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine, and other schedule I phenethylamines. MDPV, like some other substances in this class, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. MDPV is also reported to have hallucinogenic effects.[5]


MDPV is thought to act primarily as a potent norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Reduced re-uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine results in higher concentrations of the two catecholamine neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, or gap between neurons.

The result of this inhibition is an enhanced and prolonged concentration and resulting post-synaptic effect of dopaminergic and noradrenaline signaling at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors on the receiving neuron. Serotonin also plays a role, although to a much lesser degree. This sudden increase in neurotransmitter concentration in the brain is thought to be responsible for the high that MDPV produces.

Mainly possessing re-uptake inhibiting qualities and not releasing qualities, MDPV could be considered more like cocaine or methylphenidate than amphetamine in method of action.[6] In contrast, amphetamine acts primarily as an agonist to release dopamine and noradrenaline indirectly via activation of the TAAR1 receptor.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Cognitive effects

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

MDPV has a relatively short history of human use, with very few mentions concerning the use thereof before 2004. Although once considered a potential alternative to existing stimulants with a lower risk for toxicity, human MDPV administration has not been extensively studied in a clinical setting for many decades. Despite this, several recent studies on cases of persisting psychosis caused by chronic use of MDPV show promising rates of recovery among individuals who are treated with certain antipsychotics and first-line antihistamines.[12] There is currently no conclusive data concerning the neurotoxicity of MDPV in the human brain.

Anecdotal evidence from those who have tried MDPV in the community suggest that there are no negative health effects associated with the substance if simply taken at low doses by itself and when used sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

Data taken from in-vitro and in-vivo studies have indicated that MDPV shares similar properties to methamphetamine and cocaine; in fact, MDPV is more potent than these two stimulants in a number of varying ways.[13] The over-excitation of dopamine and noradrenaline caused by MDPV use, combined with MDPV's potential inability to create compensatory serotonergic activity, sets the stage for a number of hostile and psychotic reactions to the drug. These hostile tendencies have been witnessed in emergency response situations, and have also seen wide television coverage in the past, after an individual under the influence of MDPV viciously assaulted an innocent bystander. It is uncertain if the individual had any pre-existing mental disorders or if he was under the influence of any other drugs.[citation needed]

Lethal dosage

The exact lethal dosage of MDPV is unknown and no formal studies have been carried out in humans. For sake of reference, one report placed the lethal dosage for a 39 year old male at 0.4 micrograms per millilitre or greater following the results of a post mortem,[14] but this data is far too individually unique and the variables simply too diverse to derive any kind of meaningful information from it. MDPV may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma MDPV concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >50 μg/L in intoxicated patients, and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdose.[15]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Dependence and abuse potential

More so than other stimulants, the chronic use of MDPV can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. Addiction is a serious risk among users of MDPV as it easily causes compulsive redosing and causes highly unpleasant comedown symptoms.


Main article: Stimulant psychosis

User reports indicate that chronic abuse or single exposure overdose of MDPV can potentially lead to psychosis more readily than the vast majority of stimulants. Psychotic symptoms from MDPV can include hearing voices, visual hallucinations, urges to harm oneself, severe anxiety, mania, grandiosity, paranoid delusions, confusion, increased aggression, and irritability.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

Legal status

In September 2014, the European Council decided that MDPV shall be subjected by the Member States to control measures and criminal penalties by October 2, 2015.[18]

  • Australia: In Western Australia, MDPV has been banned under the Poisons Act 1964, having been included in Appendix A Schedule 9 of the Poisons Act 1964 as of February 11, 2012. The Director of Public Prosecutions for Western Australia announced that anyone intending to sell or supply MDPV faces a maximum $100,000 fine or 25 years in jail. Users face a $2000 fine or two years' jail. Therefore, anyone caught with MDPV can be charged with possession, selling, supplying or intent to sell or supply.[19]
  • Austria: Since June 26, 2019, MDPV is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG. (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich)[20]
  • Belgium: MDPV is a controlled substance as of March 20, 2013.[3]
  • Brazil: MDPV is illegal to produce, sell, or possess as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[21]
  • Bulgaria: MDPV is controlled under the Narcotic Substances Control Law as of February 2011.[3]
  • Canada: On June 5, 2012 the Canadian Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq announced that MDPV would be listed on Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, which was passed into law on September 26, 2012.[22]
  • Croatia: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Cyprus: MDPV a Class B controlled substance, as it is covered by the cathinones catch-all clause.[3]
  • Czech Republic: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Denmark: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Estonia : MDPV is a controlled substance as of November 29, 2010.[3]
  • Finland: MDPV is specifically listed as a controlled substance in Finland (listed appendix IV substance as of June 28, 2010),[23]
  • France: MDPV is a controlled substance as of August 2, 2012.[3]
  • Germany: MDPV is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II)[24] as of July 26, 2012.[25] It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.[26]
  • Hungary: MDPV a Schedule A controlled psychotropic substance.[3]
  • Ireland: MDPV is covered by the Misuse of Drugs Acts since May 11, 2010.[3]
  • Italy: MDPV is a controlled substance as of December 29, 2011.[3]
  • Latvia: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Luxembourg: MDPV is a controlled substance as of July 30, 2012.[3]
  • Norway: MDPV is a controlled substance as of Febuary 14, 2013.[3]
  • Poland: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Slovakia: MDPV a Schedule I controlled psychotropic substance as of March 1, 2011.[3]
  • Slovenia: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • Sweden: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3] In Sweden a 33-year-old man has been sentenced to six years in prison by an appellate court, Hovrätt, for possession of 250 grams of MDPV that had been acquired prior to criminalization.[27]
  • Switzerland: MDPV is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.[28]
  • Turkey: MDPV is a controlled substance.[3]
  • United Kingdom: MDPV is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[29]
  • United States: On October 21, 2011, MDPV became a DEA federally scheduled drug. The DEA issued a temporary one-year ban on MDPV, classifying it as a schedule I substance. On December 8, 2011, under the Synthetic Drug Control Act, the US House of Representatives voted to ban MDPV and a variety of other synthetic drugs which had been sold legally in stores.[30]

See also

External links



  1. 1.0 1.1 Koppe, H., Ludwig, G., Zeile, K., 1-(3’,4’-methylenedioxy-phenyl)-2-pyrrolidino-alkanones-(1) 
  2. MDPV Summary |
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 "MDPV: EMCDDA–Europol Joint Report on a new psychoactive substance: MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone)" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved December 27, 2019. 
  4. MDPV - TripSit wiki 
  7. MDPV - Erowid Exp - “Personal Research Comedown Guide” 
  8. MDPV - Erowid Exp - “Seemingly Real Paranoid Hallucination Hell” 
  9. MDPV - Erowid Exp - “Psychosis” 
  10. Watterson LR, Kufahl PR, Nemirovsky NE, Sewalia K, Grabenauer M, Thomas BF, et al. (March 2014). "Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)". Addiction Biology. 19 (2): 165–74. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00474.x. PMC 3473160Freely accessible. PMID 22784198. 
  11. Coppola M, Mondola R (January 2012). "3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV): chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of a new designer drug of abuse marketed online". Toxicology Letters. 208 (1): 12–5. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.10.002. PMID 22008731. 
  12. Studies concerning MDPV hospitalization, pages 19 to 25. |
  13. MDPV In-vivo statistics |
  14. Wyman, J. F., Lavins, E. S., Engelhart, D., Armstrong, E. J., Snell, K. D., Boggs, P. D., Taylor, S. M., Norris, R. N., Miller, F. P. (1 April 2013). "Postmortem Tissue Distribution of MDPV Following Lethal Intoxication by "Bath Salts"". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 37 (3): 182–185. doi:10.1093/jat/bkt001. ISSN 0146-4760. 
  15. Baselt, R. C. (2014). Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man (Tenth edition ed.). Biomedical Publications. ISBN 9780962652394. 
  16. Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183. 
  17. Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210Freely accessible. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647. 
  18. "Council Implementing Decision on subjecting 25I-NBOMe, AH-7921, MDPV and methoxetamine to control measures". Official Journal of the European Union. Office for Official Publications of the European Communites (published October 1, 2014). September 25, 2014. pp. 22–26. OCLC 52224955. L 287. 
  19. Media Statements - Emerging drug, MDPV banned in WA 
  22. News ·, C. B. C., “Bath salts” drug ingredient banned in Canada, CBC News 
  23. Finlex: huumausaineina pidettävistä aineista, valmisteista ja kasveista annetun valtioneuvoston asetuksen liitteen IV muuttamisesta |
  24. "Anlage II BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  25. "Sechsundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  26. "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  27. Hovrätten skärper straff i MDPV-dom |
  28. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  29. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010 
  30. News, A. B. C., House Votes to Ban “Spice,” “Bath Salts”