Mephedrone

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Summary sheet: Mephedrone
Mephedrone
Molecular structure of Mephedrone
Mephedrone.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Mephedrone, 4-MMC, Drone, M-CAT, "Meow Meow"
Substitutive name 4-Methylmethcathinone
Systematic name (RS)-2-Methylamino-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant, Entactogen
Chemical class Cathinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 15 - 50 mg
Light 50 - 100 mg
Common 100 - 200 mg
Strong 200 - 300 mg
Heavy 300 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 8 hours
Onset 15 - 45 minutes
Peak 2 - 4 hours
Offset 30 - 90 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours



Insufflated
Dosage
Threshold 5 - 15 mg
Light 15 - 45 mg
Common 45 - 80 mg
Strong 80 - 125 mg
Heavy 125 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 6 hours
Onset 15 - 45 minutes
Peak 30 - 60 minutes
Offset 30 - 90 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours






DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

4-Methylmethcathinone (also known as Mephedrone, 4-MMC, M-CAT, Drone, Meow meow, among many others[1][2]) is a synthetic entactogenic stimulant of the substituted cathinone class. It is known for producing a mixture of classic stimulant and entactogenic effects effects reminiscent of cocaine and MDMA.[3]

It is chemically similar to the compounds that can be synthesized from cathinone as found in the khat (cathulla edullis) plant of eastern Africa.

It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort, inject or insert rectally, producing effects which are somewhat similar to those of MDMA, amphetamine, and cocaine.

Mephedrone was first synthesized in 1929, but did not become widely known until it was rediscovered in 2003. By 2007, it was reported to be available for sale on the internet, by 2008 law enforcement agencies had become aware of the compound, and by 2010 it had been reported in most of Europe, becoming particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom.

Chemistry

Mephedrone, or 4-methylmethcathinone, is a synthetic molecule of the cathinone family. Cathinones are structurally similar to amphetamines, they contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines and cathinones are alpha-methylated phenethylamines, cathinones contain an additional carbonyl group at R1. Mephedrone contains an additional methyl substitutions at RN, similarly to MDMA and methamphetamine, and R4 of its phenyl ring.

Pharmacology

Given its chemical structure, mephedrone is likely to act as a releasing agent and a reuptake inhibitor for monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline.[4]

Several articles published near the end of 2011 examined the effects of mephedrone in the brains of rats, as well as examining the reinforcing potential of mephedrone. Dopamine and serotonin were collected using microdialysis, and increases in dopamine and serotonin were measured. Mephedrone administration caused about a 500% increase in dopamine, and about a 950% increase in serotonin. They reached their peak concentrations at 40 minutes and 20 minutes and returned to baseline by 120 minutes after injection.

Analysis of the ratio for dopamine and serotonin indicated mephedrone was preferentially a serotonin releaser, with a ratio of 1.22:1 (serotonin vs. dopamine). Additionally, half-lives for the decrease in dopamine and serotonin were calculated and found to have decay rates of 24.5 minutes and 25.5 minutes.

These findings show mephedrone induces a massive increase in both dopamine and serotonin, combined with rapid clearance. This increase in neurotransmitters provides an explanation for the euphoric and stimulating subjective effects induced by this experience. The rapid rise and subsequent fall of dopamine levels could also explain some of the addictive properties of mephedrone display in some users.[5][6]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
User.svg

After effects
Aftereffects (3).svg

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Almost nothing is known about the long-term effects of mephedrone due to its short history of its use.[10] Along side of this, the exact toxic dosage is unknown.[11]

In 2010, unconfirmed reports speculated about the role mephedrone has played in the deaths of several young people in the UK. By July 2010, mephedrone had been alleged to be involved in 52 fatalities in the UK, but detected in only 38 of these cases. Of the nine that coroners had finished investigating, two were caused directly by mephedrone.[12] The first death reported to be caused by mephedrone use was that of 46-year-old[13] who had underlying health problems and repeatedly injected the drug.[14] A report in Forensic Science International in stated mephedrone intoxication has been recorded as the cause of death in two cases in Scotland.[15]

Despite similarities to known neurotoxins such as methamphetamine and other cathinone derivatives, mephedrone does not appear to produce neurotoxic effects in the dopamine system of mice.[16]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of mephedrone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of mephedrone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Mephedrone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of mephedrone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legal issues

  • European Union (EU): In October 2010, a European Union commission called for an EU-wide ban of mephedrone.[18]
  • Australia: Mephedrone has been added to the Australian federal drug watch list and is now considered illegal if intended for human consumption.
  • Austria: Mephedrone is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
  • Belgium: Mephedrone was banned on April 29, 2010, by making it a regulated drug requiring the approval of the Ministry of Human Health to import, sell, or possess.
  • Brazil: Mephedrone was added to the list of Scheduled drugs (class F2), making it illegal to possess, sell, or manufacture without a license as of August 2011.[19]
  • China: Mephedrone was made a Category I psychotropic substance, making it illegal to sell, buy, import, export, and manufacture as of September 2010.
  • Denmark: Denmark's Minister for Health and Prevention Jakob Axel Nielsen banned mephedrone, flephedrone and ethylcathinone on December 18, 2008. As of July 1, 2012, Denmark also created a type of analogue law that would include cathinones like mephedrone[20]
  • Finland: Through the Medicines Act, mephedrone is classified as a "medicinal product", making it illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer it without a prescription.
  • France: French Ministry of Health decided in early June 2010 to add mephedrone to the list of illicit substances in the "Journal Officiel du 11 juin 2010".[21]
  • Germany (Deutschland): Mephedrone has been added to Anlage I starting Jan 22, 2010 and will then be controlled in Germany.[22]
  • Israel: In December 2007, mephedrone was added to Israel's list of controlled substances, making it illegal to buy, sell, or possess.[23]
  • Netherlands: In March, 2010, the Dutch Ministry of Health and the Medicines Authority IGZ informed the Ministry of Justice that they now consider mephedrone an unregulated medicine; sales and distribution of it are now prohibited.
  • Norway: The "Derivatbestemmelsen" is an Analog Act-type law in Norway that controls mephedrone, Bk-MBDB, Bromo-Dragonfly, 1,4butanediol, GBL, and MBDB.[24]
  • Poland: On August 25, 2010, mephedrone was added to the list of controlled "psychotropic drugs" in the I-P group.[25]
  • Romania: Mephedrone was added to Romania's list of controlled substances in February 2010.[26]
  • Russia: Mephedrone is classified as List 1 in Russian Federation as of August 2010. This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute.[27]
  • Slovak Republic: Starting March 1, 2011 mephedrone is controlled in the Slovak Republic.[28]
  • Sweden: In Sweden, the drug is classified as a health hazard. A ban on mephedrone went into effect on December 15, 2008, making its sale illegal. Use of 4-methylmethcathinone is not explicitly illegal under this regulation.
  • United Kingdom - Mephedrone is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.[29]
  • USA: Mephedrone is currently a Schedule I drug in the United States. This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute (sell, trade or give) without a DEA license.

See also

External links

References

  1. Mephedrone: Chemistry lessons | http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/7614099/Mephedrone-Chemistry-lessons.html
  2. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; ‘meow meow’): chemical, pharmacological and clinical issues | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-010-2070-x
  3. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; ‘meow meow’): chemical, pharmacological and clinical issues | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-010-2070-x
  4. What should be done about mephedrone? (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332508
  5. Mephedrone, compared with MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamine, rapidly increases both dopamine and 5-HT levels in nucleus accumbens of awake rats (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3246659/
  6. 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone): neuropharmacological effects of a designer stimulant of abuse (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21810934?dopt=Abstract
  7. Clubbers are 'turning to new legal high mephedrone' | http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/10004366
  8. Clinical characteristics of mephedrone toxicity reported to the U.K. National Poisons Information Service (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20798084
  9. Symptoms of mephedrone use: Extreme weight loss, sudden crying and 'a smell of cat wee' | http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/symptoms-mephedrone-use-extreme-weight-5130803
  10. Clubbers are 'turning to new legal high mephedrone' | http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/10004366
  11. Mephedrone, new kid for the chop? (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735367
  12. Ghodse, H.; Corkery, J.; Ahmed, K.; Naidoo, V.; Oyefeso and, A.; Schifano, F. (July 2010). "Drug-related deaths in the UK: Annual Report 2010". International Centre for Drug Policy, St George's University of London. p. 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
  13. "Man from Hove died after injecting mephedrone", BBC News website, 27 May 2010; retrieved on 9 June 2012
  14. "Teenagers' deaths 'not caused by mephedrone'". BBC News. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  15. Torrance, H.; Cooper, G. (2010). "The detection of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) in 4 fatalities in Scotland". Forensic Science International 202 (1): e62–e63. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.07.014. PMID 20685050.
  16. Mephedrone, an abused psychoactive component of 'bath salts' and methamphetamine congener, does not cause neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191803
  17. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  18. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-10-1355_en.htm?locale=en
  19. http://www.anvisa.gov.br/hotsite/talidomida/legis/RDC_36_2011.pdf
  20. https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/R0710.aspx?id=140430
  21. http://www.sante-sports.gouv.fr/la-mephedrone-classee-comme-stupefiant.html
  22. http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/9164/index.htm
  23. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=181254
  24. legemiddelverket.no
  25. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20101430962
  26. http://salviadivinorum.ro/noile-substante-intezise/
  27. http://gazeta.ru/news/lenta/2010/08/04/n_1529350.shtml
  28. http://www.nrsr.sk/Dynamic/Download.aspx?DocID=350863
  29. United Kingdom. (2010). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 2010/1207). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1207/made