Talk:Ethylcathinone

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Summary sheet: Ethylcathinone
Ethylcathinone
Ethylcathinone.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Ethcathinone, ETH-CAT, ETHCAT
Substitutive name Ethylcathinone, Ethylpropion
Systematic name (RS)-2-ethylamino-1-phenyl-propan-1-one
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Cathinone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 10 - 25 mg
Light 25 - 50 mg
Common 50 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 150 mg
Heavy 150 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 10 hours
Onset 20 - 40 minutes
Peak 3 - 6 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 3 - 5 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions
Alcohol
DXM
MXE
MDMA
Cocaine
Stimulants
MAOIs
Array5x-NBOMe
Array5x-NBOH
Tramadol


Ethylcathinone, ethylpropion or ETH-CAT, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes. It is an active metabolite of the prodrug diethylcathinone and is responsible for its effects. Ethcathinone has been identified as an ingredient in both quasi-legal "party pills", and, along with mephedrone, has also been reported as having been sold as "ecstasy"[1]

It is rarely found on the streets, but is sold as a grey market research chemical through online vendors.[2][3]

Chemistry

Molecule.svg

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Ethylcathinone is a simple structural modification of mephedrone where homologation of the N-methyl substituent to an N-ethyl group occurs. Aromatic substituents, similar to those for the amphetamine analogs, have been incorporated into cathinone and mephedrone.


Pharmacology

Although ethylcathinone has not been formally studied on the same level as traditional amphetamines or other substituted cathinones, it is safe to assume that just like other substituted amphetamines with substitutions at similar positions (with the notable exception of 4-FA), it most likely acts primarily as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it effectively increases the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally clear those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain to extra-endogenous levels, resulting in stimulating, motivatory and euphoric effects.

Studies demonstrate that 2-flourine amphetamine substitutions limit activity of the compound at the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor with an over 200-fold increased selectivity for A2 receptors over A1 receptors.[4] It has also been demonstrated that 2-substitution of a hydrogen with fluorine on the aromatic ring of norepinephrine produces a beta-adrenergic agonist with little alpha activity.[5] This has led the online community to speculate that the milder uncomfortable cognitive and/or physical side effects and the greater efficacy as a nootropic associated with this substance are at least partially due to decreased activity at the alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, resulting in significantly less norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and thus a "ceiling" to the amount of the recreational effects it can induce.

Subjective effects

In comparison to other substituted amphetamines, ethylcathinone is considered to be an extremely functional and effective psychoactive substance for performing general productivity tasks of any sort. However, at higher doses, it becomes less of a productivity boost and more for recreational purposes due to the distracting effects of its euphoria and stimulation.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier dosages will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects.

Physical effects

Cognitive effects

The cognitive effects of ethylcathinone can be broken down into several components which intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of ethylcathinone is described by many as one of mental stimulation coupled with mild euphoria, less present than that of amphetamine, even at higher doses.

After effects

The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ethylcathinone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because ethylcathinone has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried ethylcathinone within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Others have commented that its d-isomer form is virtually similar to the effects of d-amphetamine, and thus far little has been shown to give reason to suspect that its toxicity is radically different (though future evidence to the contrary may prove otherwise).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, ethylcathinone may also possess addiction reinforcing properties. Compared with other stimulants, however chronic use of ethylcathinone can be considered only mildly addictive with a comparatively low potential for abuse. Early studies demonstrate ethylcathinone suppresses cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys, without the adverse effects associated with older phenylethylamine 5-HT releasers (e.g., fenfluramine) and DA releasers (e.g., amphetamine). Despite this, ethylcathinone may still be capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users.

Tolerance to many of the effects of ethylcathinone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 10 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Ethylcathinone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of ethylcathinone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Abuse of compounds within the amphetamine chemical class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions).[7] A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[8][9] The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[10] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[11][12]

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
  • Stimulants - Ethylcathinone can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[14] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[15]
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.

Legal issues

Ethcathinone is currently a grey area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal grey area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with intent to sell or consume.

  • United States - Ethylcathinone may be considered to be an analog of amphetamine, thus falling under the Federal Analog Act.The Federal Analog Act, 21 U.S.C. § 813, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act, allowing any chemical "substantially similar" to an illegal drug (in Schedule I or II) to be treated as if it were also in Schedule I or II, but only if it is intended for human consumption.
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[16]
  • China: As of October 2015 Ethylcathinone is a controlled substance in China.[17]

See also

External links

References

  1. Police warn of potentially fatal 'fake ecstasy' | http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-06-17/police-warn-of-potentially-fatal-fake-ecstasy/2475270
  2. Isomeric fluoro-methoxy-phenylalkylamines: a new series of controlled-substance analogues (designer drugs) (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15639609
  3. Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074881
  4. 2-(Arylalkylamino)adenosin-5'-uronamides: a new class of highly selective adenosine A2 receptor ligands | http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm00169a015
  5. Effect of fluorine substitution on the agonist specificity of norepinephrine | http://www.sciencemag.org/content/204/4398/1217.short
  6. Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17017961
  7. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [1]
  8. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [2]
  9. Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
  10. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | [3]
  11. Stimulant Misuse: Strategies to Manage a Growing Problem | http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf
  12. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf
  13. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  14. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  15. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  16. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted
  17. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.