Galantamine

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Summary sheet: Galantamine
Galantamine
Molecular structure of galantamine
Galantamine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Galantamine
Systematic name (4aS,6R,8aS)-5,6,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-3-methoxy-11-methyl-4aH-[1]benzofuro[3a,3,2-ef][2]benzazepin-6-ol
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Sedative, Oneirogen
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 1 - 4 mg
Light 4 - 8 mg
Common 8 - 16 mg
Strong 16 - 24 mg
Heavy 24 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 12 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Galantamine (also known as Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, and Lycoremine) is a water soluble, reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that functions as a dream potentiator. It is an alkaloid that is obtained either synthetically, or from the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus caucasicus, Galanthus woronowii and related genera.[1] It is also available in both a prescription form and as an over-the-counter supplement.

Studies of usage in modern medicine began in the Soviet Union in the 1950s by Soviet pharmacologists M. D. Mashkovsky and R. P. Kruglikova–Lvova.[2] The active ingredient was extracted, identified, and studied, particularly in relation to its mechanism of action. Galantamine has been used for decades in Eastern Europe and Russia for the treatment of various conditions such as myasthenia, myopathy, and sensory and motor dysfunction associated with disorders of the central nervous system. In the United States, it is FDA approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[3]

More recently, galantamine has been popularized in supplement groups for its ability to improve dream recall and facilitate lucid dreaming. It is commonly recommended to be taken 30 minutes to one hour before bed.

Chemistry

Galantamine is a complex alkaloid that is found endogenously in certain plants and synthesized for medical use. It is comprised of a fusion between a methoxy substituted benzene ring to a hydrogenated and methylated azepine ring along with a hydroxylated benzofuran group.

Pharmacology

Galantamine, a tertiary alkaloid, is a competitive and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. Is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, a neurochemical responsible for breaking down acetylcholine. Higher concentrations of acetylcholine have also been linked to higher levels of cognition and focus.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects

Cognitive effects

Visual effects

Distortions

Toxicity and harm potential

Galantamine is non-addictive, is not known to cause harm in reasonable doses, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents few negative cognitive, psychiatric or toxic physical consequences, though some exist.

It is strongly recommended that one be familiar with harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Galantamine is not known to be not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Galantamine does not seem to build up an immediate tolerance, and, due to its long half life, becomes stronger with prolonged use. Caution should be heeded when taking galantamine for extended periods longer than two weeks. Galantamine presents cross-tolerance with no other known compounds, meaning that after the consumption of Galantamine all other psychoactive compounds will not have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.nnfcc.co.uk/publications/nnfcc-project-factsheet-sustainable-production-of-the-natural-product-galanthamine-defra-nf0612
  2. http://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/pj-online-christmas-2004-snowdrops-the-heralds-of-spring-and-a-modern-drug-for-alzheimer8217s-disease/20013614.article
  3. Medline plus, Galantamine | https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a699058.html