Melatonin

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Summary sheet: Melatonin
Melatonin
Melatonin.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Melatonin
Substitutive name N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
Systematic name N-[2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Sedative / Oneirogen
Chemical class Tryptamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
0.25 - 0.5 - 1 - 3 - 5 mg
Light Strong
Threshold 0.25 - 0.5 mg
Light 0.5 - 1 mg
Common 1 - 3 mg
Strong 3 - 5 mg
Heavy 5 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 8 hours
Onset 30 - 90 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (commonly known as melatonin[1]) is a naturally occurring substance of the tryptamine chemical class. It produces drowsiness and dream potentiation when administered. Melatonin is found in animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. In animals, it functions as a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness;[2] it may have different functions in other organisms.

Melatonin is active and can be taken sublingually and buccaly by placing it into one's mouth and allowing it to absorb over a period of 15-25 minutes. It is less active when taken orally.

Melatonin is commonly used as a medication for insomnia; however, there is insufficient scientific evidence to prove any benefit in this area.[3] It is sold over-the-counter in most pharmacies within the United States and Canada. In other countries, it may require a prescription or not be available.

It should be noted that when purchasing melatonin, dosages may range from 3 - 10mg. While not dangerous, this dosage range is well beyond the effective dose of .25 mg, and may increase instances of drowsiness the next day.[4]

Chemistry

Melatonin is comprised of a monoamine chain attached to an indole ring at the third carbon. A monoamine chain is made up of an amine group attached to an ethane chain. This monoamine chain can be found in many neurotransmitters, including histamine, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. It is also found in many psychoactive substances such as members of the tryptamine and phenethylamine chemical classes.

Melatonin, being a tryptamine, shares many structural properties with psychedelic substances. However, it lacks their associated psychedelic effects.[5] Where many tryptamines have a group bonded to the ethylamine, melatonin has an acetyl group.

Pharmacology

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This pharmacology section is incomplete.

You can help by adding to it.

Melatonin is a non-selective melatonin receptor agonist, acting at both the MT1 receptor and the MT2 receptor.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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After effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

Melatonin is non-addictive, not known to be harmful, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. Similar to other tryptamines, there are relatively few physical side effects associated with acute melatonin exposure. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents no negative cognitive, psychiatric, or toxic physical consequences.

Melatonin appears to cause very few side effects as tested in the short-term (up to three months) at low doses. Two systematic reviews found no adverse effects of melatonin usage in several clinical trials, while comparative trials found the adverse effects headaches, dizziness, nausea, and drowsiness were reported about equally for both melatonin and placebo.[10][11] Prolonged-release melatonin is safe with long-term use of up to 12 months.[12]

Lethal dosage

The median lethal dose of melatonin at which 50% of participants die (LD50) for human beings has never been reached in any setting.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Melatonin is not habit-forming. It is possible, however, to develop a mild physical dependency if this compound is used on a nightly basis for a prolonged period. This simply means that if one suddenly stops their usage of the substance without tapering, they may have trouble sleeping for a couple of days afterward.

Tolerance to the effects of melatonin is slowly built after prolonged and repeated usage. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Melatonin presents cross-tolerance with no other known compounds, meaning that after the use of melatonin, other psychoactive compounds will not have a reduced effect.

Legal status

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Canada: Melatonin is freely available to purchase as a dietary supplement and can be found at most pharmacies and grocery stores across the country.
  • India: Melatonin is legal to purchase as a dietary supplement.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: Melatonin is a licensed prescription-only medicine (POM) in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] It is not a criminal offense to possess this medicine without a valid prescription. This medicine can legally be obtained with a valid prescription or through legal import of the medicine for personal use as outlined in Section 13 of the Medicines Act 1968.[13]
  • United States: Melatonin is listed as an uncontrolled substance and is legal to possess and distribute, and is freely available to purchase as a dietary supplement.

See also

External links

References

  1. Melatonin | http://www.sleepdex.org/melatonin.htm
  2. Melatonin. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16219483
  3. Management of Insomnia Disorder [Internet]. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844312
  4. Phase-dependent treatment of delayed sleep phase syndrome with melatonin | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16295212
  5. Tihkal MELATONIN | https://erowid.org/library/books_online/tihkal/tihkal35.shtml
  6. Melatonin, a potential therapeutic agent for smooth muscle related pathological conditions and aging (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20939818
  7. Melatonin mediates two distinct responses in vascular smooth muscle (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20939818
  8. Is There Really A Connection Between Melatonin And Crazy Dreams? | http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/crazy-melatonin-dreams_us_56fd59e6e4b0a06d58051de8
  9. Melatonin Side Effects (EverydayHealth) | http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/melatonin
  10. The Efficacy and Safety of Exogenous Melatonin for Primary Sleep Disorders | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1490287/
  11. Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1370968/
  12. Melatonin prolonged release: in the treatment of insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23044640
  13. "Medicines Act 1968 Section 13".