5-APB

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Summary sheet: 5-APB
5-APB
Molecular structure of 5-APB
5-APB.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 5-APB
Substitutive name 5-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran
Systematic name 1-(Benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Entactogen / Stimulant
Chemical class Amphetamine / Benzofuran
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 20 - 40 mg
Light 40 - 60 mg
Common 60 - 80 mg
Strong 80 - 100 mg
Heavy 100 mg +
Duration
Total 5 - 8 hours
Onset 20 - 60 minutes
Come up 45 - 90 minutes
Peak 2 - 4 hours
Offset 1.5 - 3 hours
After effects 6 - 48 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

5-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran (commonly known as 5-APB) is a novel synthetic entactogen of the substituted benzofuran and amphetamine chemical classes that produces MDA-like euphoric, entactogenic, stimulating and mild hallucinogenic effects when administered.

Compared to other members of its family such as 6-APB and 5-MAPB, this compound in particular is known for its stimulating and euphoric effects which has resulted in its rise in popularity as a product which is easily accessible through the use of online research chemical vendors. It has been commercially distributed as a designer drug alternative to MDMA since 2010.[1]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 5-APB in humans, and it has only a brief history of human usage. Due to its potent entactogenic and stimulant effects, and dependence and addiction-producing potential if misused, it is highly advised that one take proper precautions, conduct independent research, and use proper harm reduction practices if choosing to use with this substance.

Chemistry

5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran, also known as 5-APB, is a benzofuran and phenethylamine, meaning it has an ethylamine chain and a furan ring attached to the core benzene ring. It can also be classified as an amphetamine derivative because the ethylamine chain is alpha methylated. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. The oxygen in the furan ring is placed at the 5 position, which generally constitutes more stimulating effects than when the oxygen is placed at the 6 position, which is usually described as being more psychedelic in effects. 5-APB is commonly found as the succinate and hydrochloride salt.[citation needed] The hydrochloride salt is 10% more potent by mass so doses should be adjusted accordingly.

Pharmacology

5-APB is a triple reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin as well as being an agonist for the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors.[2][3] It has also been speculated that 5-APB acts as a releasing agent for the previously mentioned neurotransmitters.

This means it effectively boosts the levels of the serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.

Subjective effects

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This subjective effect breakdown is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information and is still in progress.

You can help by expanding it.

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects

Cognitive effects

Visual effects

After effects

The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:

Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 5-APB use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 5-APB has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 5-APB within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

5-APB's high affinity for the 5-HT2b receptor makes it likely that 5-APB would be cardiotoxic with long-term use, as seen in other 5-HT2B agonists such as fenfluramine and MDMA.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 5-APB can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 5-APB develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 5-APB presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 5-APB all stimulants will have a reduced effect.

Psychosis

Main article: Stimulant psychosis

Abuse of compounds within the amphetamine chemical class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

Serotonin syndrome risk

Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[6]
  • United Kingdom: 5-APB is a Class B drug.
  • United States: 5-APB could be considered an analogue of MDA and therefore would be covered under the Federal Analogue Act if intended for human consumption.

See also

External links

References

  1. EMCDDA–Europol 2010 Annual Report on the implementation of Council Decision 2005/387/JHA | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/implementation-reports/2010
  2. The effects of benzofury (5-APB) on the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2-dependent vasoconstriction in the rat (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012617?dopt=Abstract
  3. Neurochemical profiles of some novel psychoactive substances (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299912010114
  4. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  5. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
  6. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7