|Summary sheet: Prolintane|
|Chemical class||Amphetamine / Pyrrolidine|
|Routes of Administration|
1-Phenyl-2-pyrrolidinylpentane (also known as Prolintane, and by the trade names Catovit, Promotil, and Villescon) is a synthetic central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is structurally similar to the substituted pyrrolidine class of compounds such as MDPV and A-PVP albeit with notably attenuated effects. Prolintane was first synthesized in the 1950s, where it was found primarily to act as as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) which is thought to confer it stimulant and potential nootropic qualities.
Historical reports show records of the preparation of prolintane for use as a mild CNS stimulant, wakefulness agent, and cessation aid for cocaine addiction. It has been marketed in Europe since the 1960s as an antidepressant (i.e. due to its anti-fatigue properties) and analeptic. It has a history of being used in neuropsychiatric research related to CNS stimulants with reduced side effects. Therapeutic uses of prolintane in Africa, Europe, and Australia include the treatment of narcolepsy, ADHD, fatigue, and orthostatic hypotension. It is not approved for pharmaceutical use in the United States.
The first reports of prolintane abuse appeared in Europe during the early 2000s when prolintane was identified in tablets distributed at a rave party. Later reports documented the recreational use of prolintane in the United States, where it appears to substitute for recreational amphetamine and other stimulant use.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal issues
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Prolintane, or 1-Phenyl-2-pyrrolidinylpentane, is a synthetic stimulant of the amphetamine class. An amphetamine molecules has the structure of a phenethylamine molecules with an additional methyl group located on the alpha carbon. Prolintane's structure consists of a phenethylamine core with a propyl group substituted at the alpha carbon, and a pyrrolidine ring at the amino group. Prolintan is structurally similar to A-PVP, but differs in the absence of a ketone group attached to the beta carbon.
Prolintane is thought to act primarily as a mild norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Reduced re-uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine results in higher concentrations of the two catecholamine neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, or gap between neurons. The result of this reduced reuptake activity is an enhanced and prolonged concentration and resulting post-synaptic effect of dopaminergic and noradrenaline signaling at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors on the receiving neurons. This sudden increase in neurotransmitter concentration in the brain is thought to be responsible for the high that prolintane can induce at higher doses.
Because it acts principally as a catecholaminergic re-uptake inhibitor, prolintane could be considered more like cocaine or methylphenidate than amphetamine in its pharmacological mechanism of action  In contrast, amphetamine acts primarily as an agonist to release dopamine and noradrenaline indirectly via activation of the TAAR1 receptor.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier dosages will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Appetite suppression
- Diarrhea or Nausea - Some experience reports describe individuals who have experienced one or more types of gastrointestinal disturbance while under the influence of prolintane, but typically only at very high doses.
- Increased heart rate - Higher doses of prolintane can create a significant and often dangerous increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
- Muscle contractions
- Muscle spasms
- Restless leg syndrome
- Stamina enhancement
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
The general cognitive effects of prolintane can be described as being similar to those of classical CNS stimulants with attenuated activity. At common dosages, the prolintane high is described as being subtle and functional, comparable to a proportionally smaller dose of dextroamphetamine with a smoother, less jittery come up and a milder comedown. Higher doses of prolintane, however, can likely intensify numerous negative effects such as anxiety and disorganized thoughts; at extremely high doses or continued use, delusions and psychosis become likely.
- Cognitive euphoria
- Compulsive redosing
- Creativity enhancement
- Delusions - This effect can manifest with high doses, but less readily than with other stimulants.
- Ego inflation
- Focus enhancement
- Increased libido
- Motivation enhancement
- Paranoia - This effect can also manifest with high doses, but less readily than with other stimulants.
- Stamina enhancement
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
- Thought acceleration
- Thought organization - Mainly observed with low to common doses.
- Thought disorganization - This effect manifests and is also intensified with higher doses.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational prolintane use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context, and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried prolintane within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
The exact lethal dosage of prolintane is unknown, and no formal studies have been carried out in humans. The typical adult therapeutic dose of prolintane has been 10-40mg daily. In therapeutic trials, 20mg prolintant is a mild stimulant equivalent to 100mg caffeine. In a study of fatigued volunteers the administration of 20mg or 40mg prolintane produced similar, but less intense effects than 20mg d-amphetamine. In experimental studies of healthy volunteers, prolintane has little cardiovascular activity following the single dose of 20mg.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Unlike some of the other more potent stimulants in its class, the chronic use of prolintane can be considered mildly to moderately addictive with only a moderate potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users.
When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. Addiction is a potential risk among users of prolintane as it can cause compulsive redosing, although typically to a far lesser degree than the notoriously compulsive cathinone analogs A-PVP and MDPV.
User reports indicate that chronic abuse or single overdose exposure of prolintane can potentially lead to psychosis. Psychotic symptoms from prolintane can include hearing voices, visual hallucinations, urges to harm oneself, severe anxiety, mania, grandiosity, paranoid delusions, confusion, increased aggression, and irritability.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- Stimulants - Prolintane can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be handled with extreme care due to DXM's effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with stimulants that increase levels of serotonin (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other stimulants. There is also a risk of excessive heart strain.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Stimulants - Prolintane can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamine and other stimulants.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Germany: Prolintane is a prescription only medicine, according to Anlage 1 AMVV (Medicine Prescribing Regulation, Schedule 1).
- Switzerland: Prolintane is not controlled under Buchstabe A, B, C and D. It could be considered legal.
- Responsible use
- Research chemical
- Substituted pyrrolidine
- GB Patent 807835
- Barceloux, D. G. (2012). Medical toxicology of drug abuse: synthesized chemicals and psychoactive plants (pp. 69-70). Wiley.
- GB Patent 807835
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- "Anlage 1 AMVV" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 28, 2019.
- "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.