|Summary sheet: Yohimbine|
|Common names||Yohimbine, Yocon, Yocoral or quebrachine|
|Systematic name||methyl (1S,15R,18S,19R,20S)-18-hydroxy-1,3,11,12,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21-dodecahydroyohimban-19-carboxylate|
|Chemical class||Indole alkaloid|
|Routes of Administration|
Yohimbine (also known as quebrachine) is a naturally-occurring stimulant substance of the indoloquinolizidine class derived from the bark of the African tree Pausinystalia johimbe. It has various uses including as an aphrodisiac and a weight loss agent. Yohimbine is also used as a mydriatic and sympatholytic and has been suggested as an antidote to clonidine and xylazine overdose.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid molecule of the indoloquinolizidine chemical class. It is structurally related to mitragynine but shows a totally different pharmacology.
The primary and most researched mechanism of yohimbine is antagonism of a class of receptors known as alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thus it increases noradrenaline levels by preventing their uptake into subsequent neurons. Blocking alpha-2 adrenoceptors increases blood pressure, releases insulin, and decreases blood sugar levels. Yohimbine also, however, blocking alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, albeit with lower affinity. It also has been shown to weak inhibit monoamine oxidase.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
You can help by expanding or correcting it.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, yohimbine is usually considered to be mildly to moderately energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is considerably weaker in comparison to that of traditional recreational stimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine, but stronger than caffeine.
- Appetite suppression
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Stamina enhancement
- Increased salivation
- Tactile enhancement
- Pupil dilation
- Seizures - In high doses.
- Frequent urination
- Analysis enhancement
- Anxiety - Due to effectively increasing noradrenaline, the neural side-effects of excess noradrenaline may result if too high a dose is taken.
- Increased libido
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
- Cognitive dysphoria
- Emotion enhancement
- Dream potentiation
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Yohimbine is not known to cause harm in reasonable doses, and has an low toxicity relative to dose. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents few negative cognitive, psychiatric or toxic physical consequences, though some exist. Higher doses (200 – 5,000 mg) result in stronger side effects and can be toxic to the brain. Extremely high doses (above 5,000 mg) can be lethal.
It is strongly recommended that one be familiar with harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Dependence and abuse potential
Yohimbine is not known to be not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.
Tolerance to the effects of yohimbine are quickly built after repeated and frequent usage. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Yohimbine does not produce cross-tolerance with most other stimulants.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
- Stimulants - Yohimbine can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
Yohimbine is legal in nearly all parts of the world.
- Encyclopedia of Toxicology | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543007995
- Agonist and antagonist actions of yohimbine as compared to fluparoxan at alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, serotonin (5-HT)(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D) and dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Significance for the modulation of frontocortical monoaminergic transmission and depressive states. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611634
- Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6145164
- Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383988627
- Evidence for activation of both adrenergic and cholinergic nervous pathways by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7557820
- Differential effects of noradrenergic drugs on anxiety and arousal in healthy volunteers with high and low anxiety. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9004342
- Case study: two fatal case reports of acute yohimbine intoxication. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846025
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210