Talk:Yohimbine

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Summary sheet: Yohimbine
Yohimbine
Yohimbine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Yohimbine, Yocon, Yocoral or quebrachine
Systematic name methyl (1S,15R,18S,19R,20S)-18-hydroxy-1,3,11,12,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21-dodecahydroyohimban-19-carboxylate
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant
Chemical class Indole alkaloid
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 0.5 mg
Light 2 - 5 mg
Common 5 - 12 mg
Strong 12 - 25 mg
Heavy 25 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 5 hours
Onset 15 - 30 minutes
Peak 1 - 2 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


Yohimbine (also known as quebrachine) is a naturally-occurring stimulant substance of the indoloquinolizidine class. It has various uses including as an aphrodisiac and a weight loss agent. Most often, yohimbine is used in the form of hydrochloride.

Yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, is an indole alkaloid found in numerous botanical sources. It is the predominant alkaloid in extracts from the bark of the Pausinystalia johimbe tree, and can also be found in Rauwolfia root.[1] Many of its effects are attributed to its α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist activity, which increases central sympathetic outflow and raises blood pressure, heart rate, and norepinephrine levels.[2]

Yohimbine is also used as a mydriatic and sympatholytic and has been suggested as an antidote to clonidine and xylazine overdose.[3]

While some reviewers noted that this extract did help them maintain an erection, lose weight or increase their energy level, many noted that the side effects they experienced outweighed any benefits they received. Some took a dosage that was considerably lower than recommended and still had unwanted side effects.

Chemistry

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Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid molecule of the indoloquinolizidine chemical class. Analyses of yohimbe bark indicate that the average total indole alkaloid content is approximately 3–6%, with approximately 10–15% of the alkaloids being yohimbine; in addition to yohimbine and its isomers (α-yohimbine, β-yohimbine, allo-yohimbine), these alkaloids include ajmaline, dihydroyohimbine, corynantheidine, dihydrocorynantheine, and corynanthine (rauhimbin).[2]

Most often, yohimbine is used in the form of hydrochloride.

Pharmacology

The primary and most researched mechanism of yohimbine is antagonism of a class of receptors known as alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thus it increases noradrenaline levels by preventing their uptake into subsequent neurons. Blocking alpha-2 adrenoceptors increases blood pressure, releases insulin, and decreases blood sugar levels. Yohimbine also, however, blocking alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, albeit with lower affinity. It also has been shown to weak inhibit monoamine oxidase.[4]

In high concentrations yohimbine behaves as an antagonist at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, serotonin 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT2B receptors, and as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A.[5]

Subjective effects

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Compared to other stimulants, yohimbine can be described as less recreational. For many users, it is unpleasant, and often even with a small dosage causes anxiety and irritability.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are cited from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Yohimbine has a low toxicity relative to dose. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents few negative cognitive, psychiatric or toxic physical consequences, though some exist. The side effects of yohimbine are clearly dose-dependent, are generally apparent at doses much higher than the claimed therapeutic doses. Generally all reported side effects of yohimbine are reversible and resolve spontaneously within a relatively short time after termination of the drug therapy[8], and most individuals who experience the inadvertent use of toxic doses will recover after a relatively short period of expectant restoration, which is measured in hours. Deaths from yohimbine overdosing are uncommonly reported but nonetheless published.[10] Higher doses (200 – 5,000 mg) result in stronger side effects and can be toxic to the brain. Extremely high doses (above 5,000 mg) can be lethal.[11]

Not recommended for individuals who have bleeding conditions as it can increase the risk of bleeding. For this reason, it is also dangerous for individuals who recently had a surgery. For those already taking this supplement, it is advised to stop intake two weeks before the scheduled surgery.

It is strongly recommended that one be familiar with harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Dependence and abuse potential

Yohimbine is not known to be not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of yohimbine are quickly built after repeated and frequent usage. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Yohimbine does not produce cross-tolerance with most other stimulants.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with other amphetamines.
  • Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
  • Stimulants - Yohimbine can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
  • 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
  • Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
  • DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
  • MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold.[12] Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
  • MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.[13]

Legal status

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As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Yohimbine is legal in nearly all parts of the world.

See also

External links

References

  1. Yohimbine | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383988627
  2. 2.0 2.1 Interactions between Nutraceuticals/Nutrients and Therapeutic Drugs | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021477000607
  3. Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Yohimbine | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543007995
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Encyclopedia of Toxicology | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543007995
  5. Agonist and antagonist actions of yohimbine as compared to fluparoxan at alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, serotonin (5-HT)(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D) and dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Significance for the modulation of frontocortical monoaminergic transmission and depressive states. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611634
  6. Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6145164
  7. 7.0 7.1 Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383988627
  8. 8.0 8.1 Yohimbine: a clinical review | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725801001565
  9. Differential effects of noradrenergic drugs on anxiety and arousal in healthy volunteers with high and low anxiety. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9004342
  10. 10.0 10.1 An Overview of Yohimbine in Sports Medicine | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128054130000156
  11. Case study: two fatal case reports of acute yohimbine intoxication. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846025
  12. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  13. Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210