|Summary sheet: Nicotine|
|Chemical class||Pyridine / Pyrrolidine|
|Routes of Administration|
Nicotine is a naturally-occurring stimulant substance of the pyrrolidinylpyridine class. It is the principle alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. As the chief ingredient of the tobacco used in cigarettes, cigars, and snuff, it is one of the most widely used substances in the world.
Nicotine acts as an agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is used as an antiherbivore agent to deter plant predation and has been used as an insecticide in the past.
Unlike other psychoactive substances, nicotine is reported to have a unique biphasic effect in which inhaling it in short puffs produces a stimulant effect, while deep drags produces a relaxing one.
Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. Beyond addiction, both short and long-term nicotine exposure have not been established as dangerous to adults, except among certain vulnerable groups. At sufficiently high doses, nicotine is associated with poisonings and is potentially lethal. Nicotine as a tool for quitting smoking has a good safety history. While the link between tobacco use and cancer are well-established, there is inadequate research to show that nicotine itself is associated with cancer in humans.
- 1 History and culture
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Subjective effects
- 5 Forms
- 6 Toxicity and harm potential
- 7 Legal status
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 References
History and culture
This History and Culture section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
Crude nicotine was known by 1571, and the compound was obtained in purified form in 1828; the correct molecular formula was established in 1843, and the first laboratory synthesis was reported in 1904.
Nicotiana rustica has been used by the Mapacho (South America) and the thuoc lao (thuốc lào) (Vietnam) people for spiritual purposes.
Nicotine (3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine) is a naturally occurring bicyclic compound comprised of a pyridine ring attached to the second carbon of a pyrrolidine ring that has a methyl substituent on the nitrogen. Pyridine is an unsaturated six-membered ring structurally related to benzene but with a nitrogen member. Nicotine additionally contains a substituted pyrrolidine ring, which is a saturated five-membered ring with one nitrogen member. These rings are bridged from the R3 position of the pyridine ring to the R2 position of the pyrrolidine ring.
Both optical enantiomers of nicotine are active, with the naturally occurring levorotatory enantiomer being more active and more toxic than the dextrorotatory. In its basic form, it is an oily liquid that is miscible with water. However, as a nitrogenous base, nicotine readily forms stable, water-soluble salts when acidified.
Once it reaches the brain, nicotine stimulates the release of many neurotransmitters and hormones, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, arginine vasopressin, serotonin, dopamine, and β-endorphin, which are responsible for the majority of its psychoactive effects.
By increasing the level of acetylcholine in the brain, nicotine enhances concentration. Norepinephrine release causes increased alertness and arousal. With low doses, nicotine enhances the action of norepinephrine and dopamine, which produces typical psychostimulation. Nicotine also has sedative effects as produced by the release of β-endorphin (which reduces anxiety) and enhances the action of serotonin and opioids (which causes sedation).
Nicotine has a half-life of 1 - 2 hours when administered in a single dose and an active metabolite (cotinine) with a half-life of 20 hours. Nicotine and cotinine are further glucuronidated by UGT2B10.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation & Sedation - The stimulatory effects of nicotine are much less pronounced than other stimulants such as caffeine or amphetamine. At higher doses, however, nicotine inhibits nerve transmission which produces moderate sedative effects.
- Dizziness - At high doses or with users without any tolerance, nicotine can cause one to feel dizzy or lightheaded.
- Abnormal heartbeat - At high doses, nicotine can trigger an elevated heart rate or even heart palpitations.
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Nausea - This effect tends to only be prominent at excessively high doses.
- Appetite suppression
- Pupil constriction
- Anxiety and Anxiety suppression - Low doses of nicotine produce stimulatory effects, which can cause anxiety. Higher doses stimulate the release of beta-endorphin, an opioid found within the body, which relieves anxiety.
- Compulsive redosing
- Cognitive euphoria
- Focus enhancement
- Increased libido - Nicotine has the capability of inducing heightened sexual arousal due to its effect on dopamine transmission.
- Increased music appreciation - This effect is most noticeable when combined with hallucinogens or other stimulant substances.
- Memory enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
The most common source of nicotine is Nicotiana tabacum, constituting 0.6% - 3.0% of its dry weight. It is also present in other species of Nightshade (Solanaceae), such as Indian tobacco (Nicotiana rustica). Tobacco for smoking is most commonly sold as cigarettes but may also be sold as cigars, which differ from cigarettes by having a tobacco leaf wrapper instead of the paper wrapper used in cigarettes. Loose tobacco for hand-rolling cigarettes and cigars, or for smoking in pipes/hookahs is also commonly available. Tobacco products not intended for smoking are also marketed. These include snuffs which are insufflated and chewing tobacco, also known as snus.
Nicotine is also extracted from tobacco and reformulated into products intended to assist users who wish to cease use of tobacco products like cigarettes. Popular products include sublingual lozenges and sprays, skin patches, inhalers, and solutions used for oral use or in conjunction with a vaporizer.
E-cigarettes and vaporizers
More recently, nicotine in liquid forms (commonly called e-liquid) intended for vaporizing in electronic cigarettes has become popular as an alternative to smoking. Unlike products intended to assist in smoking cessation, e-cigarettes are not typically licensed or marketed as medical devices.
Moist dipping tobacco
Dipping tobacco (dip, chew, chaw, snuff, etc.) is a form of tobacco that is cut in fine, medium, long, or extra long cut shreds and is placed in the gingiva of either side and floor of the mouth. It is fermented, unlike Swedish snus, which is pasteurized. It is known to produce excess saliva that needs to be spat out, otherwise the user may experience nausea. It gives a buzz and feeling of lightheadedness to the user. Dip may be put into pouches to produce an Americanized version of Swedish snus.
Swedish snus is a form of tobacco that is cut and/or ground and put into small, soft pouches, which the user puts in the space under the upper lip and gum (gingiva). Nicotine passes into the bloodstream through the process of diffusion. Snus is available without any taste additives as a natural taste, but is also available in various taste options, from menthol vanilla, bergamot, citrus and others.
Toxicity and harm potentialharm reduction practices when using this substance.
Nicotine has an estimated oral LD50 of 6.5 - 13 mg/kg in humans, which is much lower than many other common stimulants. It is unlikely that overdose can be achieved by smoking tobacco. However, coadministration with other sources of nicotine such as patches or gum may potentially be dangerous.
Nicotine readily passes through the dermis and into the bloodstream upon contact with skin, so safety precautions should be taken when handling it in its pure form.
Flavored e-liquids intended for use in e-cigarette devices can present a particular danger to children, and there have been cases recorded where children have mistakenly consumed e-liquid products with fatal results.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Nicotine activates the reward system (mesolimbic pathway) of the brain, which is responsible for its addictive nature. Because of this, tobacco smoking is extremely addictive with a high potential for abuse. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Chronic use of nicotine, as with many other addictive substances, downregulates the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters and also desensitizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In response, the brain upregulates the number of receptors presented. The net effect is an increase in sensitivity to the reward system; the opposite of the decrease in sensitivity as caused by addictive substances like cocaine and heroin.
Tolerance to the effects of this compound rapidly develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Nicotine does not present a cross-tolerance with other dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the use of nicotine all stimulants will not have a reduced effect.
Following discontinuation of nicotine, receptors may take several months to return to baseline.
Nicotine has been indicated in the increased frequency of congenital disabilities and has been correlated with the increase of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.
Nicotine is legal nearly all over the world and is one of the most popularly used substances. The sale of tobacco products are usually restricted to adults, and they are often heavily taxed.
- Bhutan: Tobacco products are legal, but their public use is restricted to specific smoke-friendly areas.
- "Shamanic Tobaccos". Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge - A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution. Bantam. 1992. p. 196. ISBN 0-553-37130-4.
- Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS (1984). Neuroregulators and the reinforcement of smoking: Towards a biobehavioral explanation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 8:503-513.
- Pomerleau OF, Rosecrans J (1989). Neuroregulatory effects of nicotine. Psychoneuroendocrinology 14:407-423.
- Chen, G., Blevins-Primeau, A. S., Dellinger, R. W., Muscat, J. E., & Lazarus, P. (2007). Glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by UGT2B10: loss of function by the UGT2B10 Codon 67 (Asp> Tyr) polymorphism. Cancer Research, 67(19), 9024-9029. | (PubMed / NCBI) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17909004
- Hossain, A. M., & Salehuddin, S. M. (2013). Analytical determination of nicotine in tobacco leaves by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 6(3), 275-278. | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187853521000211X
- Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of substances of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607604644
- Seo, A. D., Kim, D. C., Yu, H. J., & Kang, M. J. (2016). Accidental ingestion of E-cigarette liquid nicotine in a 15-month-old child: an infant mortality case of nicotine intoxication. Korean journal of pediatrics, 59(12), 490-493. (PubMed/NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5300914/ | (DOI link) doi:10.3345/kjp.2016.59.12.490
- Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan, 2010 (in both Dzongkha and English), government of Bhutan. PDF file