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Skeletal formula of an adrenaline molecule.

Adrenaline (also known as epinephrine) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and certain neurons in humans and animals.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Adrenaline is used to regulate heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts. Adrenaline release is a crucial component of the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.[citation needed] Adrenaline release during fight-or-flight can increase the rate of processing of information in the brain which leads to a slow motion perception due to the relativity of intertwined space and time as spacetime.


Skeletal formula of monoamine chain molecule.
Skeletal formula of catechol molecule.

Adrenaline is a phenethylamine and catecholamine, which is a monoamine chain attached to a benzene ring. The catechol ring is a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups attached to it, where both are ortho-oriented relative to each other. A monoamine chain is made up of an amine group attached to an ethane chain. This monoamine chain can be found in many neurotransmitters, including histamine, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. It is also found in many psychoactive substances, examples being tryptamines and phenethylamines.

Adrenergic system

The adrenergic receptors exhibit both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and are located throughout the human body. There are two types of adrenaline receptors; α(1 or 2) and β(1-3).[citation needed]

Drugs targeting the adrenergic system

  • Direct-acting agonists

Direct-acting agonists have direct action upon the adrenergic system where they have action upon the adrenergic receptors themselves. These include antihypertensives (to reduce blood pressure), sedatives and muscle relaxants.

  • Indirect-acting agonists

Indirect agonists work by increasing the neurotransmission of endogenous chemicals such as adrenaline or noradrenaline. These include many stimulant drugs, such as amphetamine, cocaine, MDMA and methylphenidate.

  • Antagonists

Antagonists of the adrenergic system can be split into α-blockers and β-blockers. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants and in medication preventing heart attacks.

Subjective Effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠. {{effects/base

Visual effects

Auditory effects

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

The range of possible lethal dosage ranges from 4-8 milligrams. This varies on weight and sex.

Dangerous interactions


This dangerous interactions section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or invalid information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • A - Blockers
  • Vasodilators
  • Diuretics
  • Antihypertensives
  • Ergot Alkaloids
  • Phenothiazine Antipsychotics
  • Sympathomimetics
  • B - Blockers
  • Trycyclic Anti-depressants
  • MAO Inhibitors
  • COMT Inhibitors
  • Clonidine
  • Doxapram
  • Oxytocin
  • Anaesthetics
  • Antihistamines
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Cardiac Glycosides
  • Quinidine
  • Potassium Depleting Diuretics
  • Corticosteroids
  • Theophylline

Legal Status

Australia: You can buy adrenaline at a pharmacy without a prescription

United Kingdom: Adrenaline is available by prescription.

United States: Adrenaline is available by prescription, but can be found in settings such as a school for emergency usage or for first aid carry.

See also

External links


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