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Summary sheet: 2C-D
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 2C-D, 2C-M, LE-25
Substitutive name 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine
Systematic name 1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminoethane
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Psychedelic
Chemical class Phenethylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 3 - 10 mg
Light 10 - 25 mg
Common 25 - 50 mg
Strong 50 - 100 mg
Heavy 100 mg +
Total 3 - 5 hours
Onset 15 - 45 minutes
Come up 20 - 40 minutes
Peak 1.5 - 2.5 hours
Offset 0.5 - 1.5 hours
After effects 1 - 4 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine (also known as 2C-M, LE-25 and more commonly as 2C-D) is a synthetic psychedelic of the phenethylamine chemical class that produces short-lived psychedelic effects when administered. Its sensory and cognitive effects profile has been described as being the most similar to that of mescaline among members of the 2C-x family, albeit with a significantly shorter duration.

The synthesis of 2C-D was first published in 1970 by a team from the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences.[1] Initial trials by Alexander Shulgin at sub-threshold doses in humans were carried out in 1964.[2]

Many anecdotal reports suggest that it is calmer, easier to handle and more comfortable on the body than other closely related psychedelic phenethylamines. While not especially visual or physically euphoric at common doses, it is reported to be very lucid, analytical and unimpaired in its headspace - a quality it retains even as the dose is increased.

Lower doses of 2C-D (generally 10 mg or less) have been explored for its use as a potential nootropic, albeit with mixed results.[3]

Today, 2C-D is used both recreationally and as an entheogen. It is rarely sold on the streets and almost exclusively distributed as a gray area research chemical by online vendors.

History and culture

The synthesis of 2C-D was first published in 1970 by a team from the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences,[4], but initial trials by Alexander Shulgin at sub-threshold doses were carried out in 1964. Further investigations at higher doses were carried out by Shulgin and his fellow researchers between 1974 and 1978.[5] The name '2C-D' derives from the chemical's structure - it is the 2-Carbon analogue of DOM.

Shulgin notably referred to 2C-D as a “pharmacological tofu,” meaning it can extend or potentiate the effect of other substances without overly coloring the experience, in a manner similar to how tofu absorbs the flavors of sauces or spices it is cooked with.[citation needed] While some use this as evidence that 2C-D is relatively uninteresting as a psychedelic on its own, others strongly disagree with this assessment and hold that 2C-D is an unusually versatile and fully-fledged psychedelic in its own right.

Despite showing promise as a very functional psychostimulant[6][7] with successful studies investigating the use in psychotherapy in Germany,[8] 2C-D has not found widespread use. This has been argued to be due to the previously limited diversity of substances on the market - a consumer dynamic which has changed significantly with the advent of the internet - allowing a broader freedom of choice for explorers of psychedelic phenethylamines.[9] Of these, it tends to be substantially harder to find and notably more expensive by weight.[citation needed]


Generic structure of a phenethylamine molecule

2C-D, or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine, is a substituted phenethylamine featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain. 2C-D contains methoxy functional groups CH3O- attached to carbons R2 and R5 as well as a methyl group attached to carbon R4 of the phenyl ring.

2C-D belongs to the 2C family of phenethylamines which contain methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the benzene ring.


Further information: Serotonergic psychedelic

2C-D's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The head space of 2C-D is described by many as being lucid, insightful and relatively normal in its thought processes even at moderate to high doses. The feeling of unaltered consciousness may be unsatisfying to users who want an intense experience because the head space is fairly normal, stable and therefore sometimes uninteresting to those who are new to hallucinogenic experiences.

The effects listed below are based on the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Multi-sensory effects

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2C-D use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because 2C-D is a research chemical with very little history of human usage.

Anecdotal evidence from those within the community who have tried 2C-D suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying the substance by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

2C-D is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of 2C-D is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 3 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 7 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2C-D presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of 2C-D all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with psychedelics significantly increases the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination is strictly discouraged.
  • Cannabis - Cannabis has an unexpectedly strong and unpredictable synergy with the effects of psychedelics. Caution is advised with this combination as it can significantly increase the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, paranoia, panic attacks, and psychosis. Users are advised to start off with only a fraction of their normal cannabis dose and take long breaks between hits to avoid over intake.
  • Stimulants (Amphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate, ...) - Stimulants affect many parts of the brain and alter dopaminergic function. Combined with psychedelics, stimulation can turn into severe anxiety, panic, thought loops, and paranoia. This interaction may result in an elevated risk of mania and psychosis.[citation needed]
  • Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold[10] and psychedelics may act as triggers for seizures in susceptible individuals.[citation needed]

Legal status

  • Australia: Australia has a blanket ban over all substituted phenethylamines including the entire 2C-X family.[11]
  • Austria: 2C-D is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[12]
  • Canada: 2C-D would be considered Schedule III as it is a derivative of 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[13]
  • China: 2C-D is a controlled substance in China as of October 2015.[14]
  • Denmark: 2C-D is added to the list of Schedule B controlled substances.[15]
  • Germany: On December 13, 2014, 2C-D was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.[16]
  • Japan: 2C-D is controlled by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan, making it illegal to possess or sell.[17]
  • Latvia: 2C-D is a Schedule I controlled substance.[18]
  • Switzerland: Possession, production and sale is illegal.[19]
  • Sweden: 2C-D is classified as a health hazard as of March 1, 2005, in the regulation SFS 2005:26, making it illegal to sell or possess.[20]
  • United Kingdom: 2C-D is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the phenethylamine catch-all clause.[21]
  • United States: 2C-D is listed in Schedule I of section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act in the United States. This was signed into law as of July 2012 under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act.[22]

See also

External links



  1. Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5412084
  2. Shulgin, Alexander. "Pharmacology Lab Notes #1". Lafayette, CA. (1960-1976). p94, p175 (Erowid.org) | https://erowid.org/library/books_online/shulgin_labbooks/shulgin_labbook1_searchable.pdf
  3. Lemaire, D. (1990). Erowid 2C-D Vault: Smart Pills, by Hosten & Lazar. Retrieved from https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cd/2cd_smartpills1.shtml
  4. Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5412084
  5. Shulgin, Alexander. "Pharmacology Lab Notes #1". Lafayette, CA. (1960-1976). p94, p175 (Erowid.org) | https://erowid.org/library/books_online/shulgin_labbooks/shulgin_labbook1_searchable.pdf
  6. Zuba, D., & Sekula, K. (2013). Analytical characterization of three hallucinogenic N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivatives of the 2C-series of phenethylamine drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 5(8), 634–645. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1397
  7. King, L. A. (2014). New phenethylamines in Europe. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 808–818. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1570
  8. Schneider, U. (2004). Aspekte des Psychischen: Festschrift anlässlich des 60. Geburtstags von Hinderk M. Emrich. Würzbug, Germany: Königshausen & Neumann. No complete fulltext was available at the time of writing, please refer to the Google Scholar document: https://books.google.de/books?id=yo45tYQj2-MC&lpg=PA129&ots=tW1EqmhrGF&dq=DMM-PEA&hl=de&pg=PA129&output=embed.
  9. Martin, J. (2014). Drugs on the Dark Net. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137399052
  10. Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
  11. New Psychoactive Substances (National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre 2014) | https://comorbidity.edu.au/sites/default/files/cre/page/New%20Psychoactive%20Substances.pdf
  12. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  13. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (S.C. 1996, c. 19) |http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-12.html#h-28
  14. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  15. Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer | https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=137169
  16. Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm
  17. Analytical Data of Designated Substances (Shitei-Yakubutsu) Controlled by the Pharmaceutical AŠairs Law in Japan, Part I: GC-MS and LC-MS | https://www.erowid.org/references/texts/show/7395docid7635
  18. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (2,5-Dimetoksifeniletānamīni) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  19. http://web.archive.org/web/20170329020935/https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20101220/index.html
  20. Svensk författningssamling | http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/sfs/20050026.pdf
  21. United Kingdom. (1977). Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (S.I. 1977/1243). London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved July 5, 2017, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1977/1243/made
  22. S. 3187: Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Subtitle D-Synthetic Drugs | http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/112/s3187/text