|Summary sheet: 2-Aminoindane|
|Chemical class||Amphetamine, Aminoindane|
|Routes of Administration|
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal issues
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
2-AI, or 2-Aminoindane, is a structural analogue of amphetamine. It features the R3 terminal carbon of the propane chain of amphetamine bound to the benzene ring. This creates an indane group, a bicyclic moeity containing a benzene ring fused to a pentane ring. 2-AI contains an amino group NH2 bound to R2 of the indane ring thus giving it the name 2-aminoindane. 2-AI is structurally analogous to NM-2-AI, lacking the N-substituted methyl group.
Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely based upon its structure and subjective effect similarities to other stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine and 2-FMA. 2-AI most likely acts as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent. This means it effectively boosts the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain, resulting in stimulating and euphoric effects.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, 2-AI is usually considered to be energetic and stimulating in a fashion that is similar to that of amphetamine but stronger than that of modafinil or caffeine. It is similar yet distinct from the stimulation experienced on MDMA, encouraging physical activities such as dancing, socializing, running, or cleaning. The particular style of stimulation which 2-AI presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher doses, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes and vibrations become present, resulting in extreme shaking of the entire body, unsteadiness of the hands, and a general lack of motor control.
- Pain relief - Many anecdotal reports suggest that this compound may suppress pain in a fashion somewhat similar to opioids without the distinct physical euphoria.
- Increased heart rate
- Appetite suppression
- Temporary erectile dysfunction
- Increased perspiration
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- The cognitive effects of 2-AI can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of 2-AI is described by many as one of mental stimulation, increased focus, and euphoria. It contains a large number of typical stimulant cognitive effects. Although negative side effects are usually mild at low to moderate doses, they become increasingly likely to manifest themselves with higher amounts or extended usage. This particularly holds true during the offset of the experience. The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2-AI use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 2-AI has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 2-AI within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 2-AI can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 2-AI develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2-AI presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 2-AI all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Abuse of compounds within the stimulant class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Stimulants - 2-AI can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamine and other stimulants.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
2-AI is currently believed to be a grey area compound within most parts of the world. This means that it is not known to be specifically illegal within any country, but people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with intent to sell or consume.
- Austria: 2-AI is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- Structural variation and (+)-amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus properties (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2068194
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted