Talk:Hydroxyzine

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Summary sheet: Hydroxyzine

Template:SubstanceBox/Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine is a antihistamine substance of the diphenylmethylpiperazine class. It is in the piperazine family of chemicals.[1] It's main mechanism of action is as a potent and selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist.[2][3]

Hydroxyzine is used in the treatment of itchiness, anxiety, and nausea due to motion sickness.[4]

Ferreri et al. (1995), in a placebo-controlled study, found hydroxyzine to be effective for the treatment of GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) after 1 week of treatment and maintained the improvement throughout the study.[5]

Recreational use of hydroxyzine is inprofilable and is't associated with dependence and abuse, but with fast tolerance.

History and culture

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It was first made by Union Chimique Belge in 1956 and was approved for sale by Pfizer in the United States later that year.[6][7] In the United Kingdom 28 doses cost less than a pound.[8] In the United States the wholesale cost in 2018 was about 0.05 USD per dose.[9] In the United States about 8 million prescriptions were written for hydroxyzine in 2016.[10]

Chemistry

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Hydroxyzine is a member of the diphenylmethylpiperazine class of antihistamines.

Analogues of hydroxyzine include buclizine, cetirizine, cinnarizine, cyclizine, etodroxizine, meclizine, and pipoxizine among others.

Hydroxyzine is synthesized by the alkylation of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine with 2-(2-Chloroethoxy)ethanol[11]

Pharmacology

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Hydroxyzine is as a potent and selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist. This action is responsible for its antihistamine and sedative effects.[12][13] Hydroxyzine also has very low affinity for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and in accordance, has low or no propensity for producing anticholinergic side effects. In addition to its antihistamine activity, hydroxyzine has also been shown to act more weakly as an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor, the dopamine D2 receptor, and the α1-adrenergic receptor, what causes anxiolytic.[14][15]

Subjective effects

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Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Transpersonal effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

Tolerance and addiction potential

Dangerous interactions

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Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

Legal status

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See also

External links

Literature

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References

  1. "Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 21 Nov 2018.
  2. Szepietowski J, Weisshaar E (2016). Itin P, Jemec GB (eds.). Itch - Management in Clinical Practice. Current Problems in Dermatology. 50. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 1–80. ISBN 9783318058895.
  3. Hosák L, Hrdlička M, et al. (2017). Psychiatry and Pedopsychiatry. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. p. 364. ISBN 9788024633787.
  4. "Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 21 Nov 2018.
  5. Rosario B. Hidalgo, David V. Sheehan, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2012
  6. "Hydroxyzine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 21 Nov 2018.
  7. Shorter E (2009). Before Prozac: the troubled history of mood disorders in psychiatry. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195368741.
  8. British national formulary : BNF 74 (74 ed.). British Medical Association. 2017. p. X. ISBN 978-0857112989.
  9. "NADAC as of 2018-11-21". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 21 Nov 2018.
  10. British national formulary : BNF 74 (74 ed.). British Medical Association. 2017. p. X. ISBN 978-0857112989.
  11. H. Morren, U.S. Patent 2,899,436 (1959); H. Morren, DE 1049383 (1954); H. Morren, DE 1061786 (1954); H. Morren, DE 1068262 (1954); H. Morren, DE 1072624 (1954); H. Morren, DE 1075116 (1954).
  12. Szepietowski J, Weisshaar E (2016). Itin P, Jemec GB (eds.). Itch - Management in Clinical Practice. Current Problems in Dermatology. 50. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 1–80. ISBN 9783318058895.
  13. Hosák L, Hrdlička M, et al. (2017). Psychiatry and Pedopsychiatry. Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press. p. 364. ISBN 9788024633787.
  14. Snowman AM, Snyder SH (1990). "Cetirizine: actions on neurotransmitter receptors". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 86 (6 Pt 2): 1025–8. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80248-9. PMID 1979798.
  15. Szepietowski J, Weisshaar E (2016). Itin P, Jemec GB (eds.). Itch - Management in Clinical Practice. Current Problems in Dermatology. 50. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 1–80. ISBN 9783318058895.