JWH-018

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Summary sheet: JWH-018
JWH-018
JWH-018.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Substitutive name JWH-018, AM-678
Systematic name Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold Common Heavy
- 1 - 2 - 3 - 5 mg
Light Strong
Threshold < 1 mg
Light 1 - 2 mg
Common 2 - 3 mg
Strong 3 - 5 mg
Heavy 5 mg +
Duration
Total 1 - 2 hours
Onset 5 - 10 minutes
Peak 60 - 90 minutes
Offset 5 - 10 minutes
After effects 60 - 90 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (also called AM-678 and JWH-018)[1][2] is a full agonist synthetic cannabinoid first synthesized by organic chemist John W. Huffman. It gained popularity in late 2008 when German chemists found it as a chemical within the popular synthetic cannabis blend Spice, which had been sold in numerous countries around the world since 2002.[3][4][5]

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. JWH-018 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is very strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.

Chemistry

JWH-018, or Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid containing a substituted indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, 5F-PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. JWH-018 is substituted at R1 with a pentyl chain. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carbonyl group which is also bonded to a napthalene moeity. Napthalene is a bicyclic structure of two fused benzene rings. This carbonyl bridge of JWH-018 classifies it as a ketone. JWH-018 is an analog of THJ-018, in which the core indazole structure is substituted with an indole base.

Pharmacology

JWH-018 is a full agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with a reported binding affinity of 9.00 ± 5.00 nM at CB1 and 2.94 ± 2.65 nM at CB2.[6] However, the role of these interactions and how it results in the cannabinoid high experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Combinations

  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
  • Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that one smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational JWH-018 use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because the drug has very little history of human usage.

JWH-018, like many synthetic cannabinoids, is a full agonist of the CB1 receptors in contrast to the partial agonist Δ9-THC. Because of this, harm mediated by CB1 receptor agonism can be more severe than its partial agonist counterparts.[16][17] JWH-018 has caused seizures and convulsions, and evidence suggests this is a result of inhibiting GABA neurotransmission more effectively than Δ9-THC.[18] JWH-018 has also been associated with strokes in two healthy adults.[19]

JWH-018 has also been known to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders causing intense paranoia, anxiety and agitation; however, Δ9-THC itself has been known to do this as well.[20] It is often recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase the current state of mind of the person. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis,[21] especially in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of psychosis).[22][23][24]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of JWH-018 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of JWH-018 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). JWH-018 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of JWH-018 all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Legal status

  • Austria: The Austrian Ministry of Health announced on December 18, 2008 that Spice would be controlled under paragraph 78 of their drug law on the grounds that it contains an active substance that affects the functions of the body, and the legality of JWH-018 is under review. JWH-018 is now illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
  • Australia: The State of Queensland has listed JWH-018 as a dangerous drug under Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987. It is schedule 2, the same schedule as cannabis.[25]
  • Belarus: This substance was banned on the 1st of January 2010.
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[26]
  • Canada: JWH-018 is claimed to be a controlled substance in Canada though it is not listed under schedule 2 synthetic cannabinoids.
  • China: China has made JWH-018 illegal for sale. It is illegal to import or export JWH-018.
  • Estonia: This substance was banned on the 24th of July 2009.
  • Finland: This substance was banned on the 12th of March 2012.[27]
  • France: This substance was banned on 24th of February 2009.[28][29]
  • Germany: This substance was banned on the 22nd of January 2009.[30]
  • Ireland: An immediate ban was announced on 11 May 2010 by Minister for Health Mary Harney.[31]
  • Italy: This substance was banned on the 2nd of July 2010.[32]
  • Latvia: This substance was banned on the 28th of November 2009.
  • Norway: This substance was banned on 21st of December 2011.[33]
  • Romania: This substance was banned on the 15th of February 2010.
  • Russia: This substance was banned on the 22nd of January 2010.
  • South Korea: This substance was banned on the 1st of July 2009.[34]
  • Sweden: A bill to ban JWH-018 was accepted on 30 July 2009 and was in effect on 15 September 2009.
  • Ukraine: This substance was banned on the 31st of May 2010.
  • United Kingdom: This substance was banned on the 23rd of December 2009.[35]
  • United States: This substance was permanently scheduled on the 9th of July 2012 by Section 1152 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA).[36]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49741625/DEA-Rule-on-Synthetic-Cannabinoids
  2. https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13169m.pdf
  3. http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt_und_hessen/nachrichten/frankfurt/1646010_Gefaehrlicher-Kick-mit-Spice.html
  4. http://www.haz.de/newsroom/wissen/zentral/wissen/art680,757107#
  5. http://www.badische-zeitung.de/nachrichten/panorama/spice-enthaelt-chemischen-wirkstoff--9211606.html
  6. https://www.caymanchem.com/pdfs/13169.pdf
  7. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  8. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  9. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  10. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  11. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  12. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  13. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  14. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  15. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  16. Atwood, B.K., et al., "JWH018, a common constituent of 'Spice' herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist."
  17. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00582.x/abstract
  18. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_80086_EN_Spice%20Thematic%20paper%20%E2%80%94%20final%20version.pdf
  19. Ischemic stroke after use of the synthetic marijuana "spice". (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24212384
  20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1360-0443.2010.03119.x
  21. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  22. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  23. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  24. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  25. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/D/DrugsMisuseR87.pdf
  26. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  27. http://www.kauppalehti.fi/5/i/yritykset/lehdisto/stt-info/tiedote.jsp?selected=kaikki&oid=20120301/13305932981210
  28. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/synthetic-cannabinoids#control
  29. http://www.afssaps.fr/var/afssaps_site/storage/original/application/d23d05edc58479d91c803b496017f073.pdf
  30. http://www.bgblportal.de/BGBL/bgbl1f/bgbl109s0049.pdf
  31. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2010/0511/breaking41.html
  32. http://www.politicheantidroga.it/comunicazione/comunicati/2010/luglio/spice,-n-joy-e-mefedrone-da-oggi-stupefacenti.aspx
  33. http://www.lovdata.no/ltavd1/filer/sf-20111221-1465.html
  34. http://www.hkn24.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=28611
  35. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/law/article6965663.ece
  36. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm