Amanita muscaria (mycology)

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Amanita muscaria (mycology)
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A. muscaria mushrooms in different stages of growth.
Taxonomical nomenclature
Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
Class Agaricomycetes
Order Agaricales
Family Amanitaceae
Genus Amanita
Species A. muscaria
Common nomenclature
Common names Fly agaric, Fly amanita
Mycological Characteristics
Spore print White
Constituents
Active constituents Muscimol, Ibotenic acid

Amanita muscaria (also known as fly agaric or fly amanita) is a psychoactive mushroom that grows widely in the northern hemisphere. Arguably the most iconic toadstool species, the fly agaric is a large white-gilled, white-spotted, usually red mushroom, and is one of the most recognisable and widely encountered in popular culture.[citation needed]

Amanita muscaria is noted for its hallucinogenic properties, which derive from its primary psychoactive constituents ibotenic acid and muscimol. Muscimol is a potent, selective agonist for the GABAA receptor that produces sedative, depressant and deliriant effects.[citation needed]

Although classified as poisonous, reports of human deaths resulting from its ingestion are extremely rare. After parboiling—which weakens its toxicity and breaks down the mushroom's psychoactive substances—it is eaten in parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.[citation needed]

Amanita muscaria has been used as an intoxicant and entheogen by the peoples of Siberia, and has a religious significance in these cultures. There has been much speculation on possible traditional use of this mushroom as an intoxicant in other places such as the Middle East, Eurasia, North America, and Scandinavia.[citation needed]

Amanita muscaria is sometimes confused with psilocybin mushrooms as "magic mushrooms". However, these two mushrooms have completely different active compounds, pharmacological effects, and appearances.

Habitat

Amanita muscaria has formed a symbiotic relationship with various coniferous and deciduous trees such as birches, pines, and spruces, and can often be found growing near them. There are many different varieties of amanita muscaria with varying appearances.[1]

Chemistry

Muscimol, the primary psychoactive constituent in Amanita muscaria.

The principle psychoactive compounds in amanita muscaria are muscimol and the related compound ibotenic acid. Both compounds have similar molecular structures; however, ibotenic acid contains a carboxyl group. Both compounds contain an isoxazole ring with a hydroxyl group bonded at the 3-position. Unlike muscimol, ibotenic acid is a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, which contributes to its relatively powerful neurotoxic effects. Ibotenic acid is also decarboxylated to muscimol.

Amanita muscaria also contains small amounts of muscarine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. While this was once thought to be the principle mechanism of action of amanita muscaria, it is no longer thought to be since the levels of muscarine are too low to be significant.

Pharmacology

Amanita muscaria var alba. Some varieties of A. muscaria can be confused with poisonous ones.

Amanita muscaria has an atypical mechanism of action. Unlike classical psychedelics (which are 5-HT2A agonists) and classical dissociatives (which are NMDA receptor antagonists), muscimol is a potent GABAA agonist, meaning it activates the receptor for GABA, the brain's principle inhibitory neurotransmitter. As an agonist, muscimol binds to the same site on the GABAA receptor as GABA itself. This is unlike benzodiazepines and barbiturates, which bind to different allosteric sites on the GABAA receptor.

Muscimol has also been shown to be a partial agonist at the GABAA-ρ receptor, which may contribute to its psychoactive effects. Some substances that interact with the GABAA receptor such as zolpidem have been shown to also have hallucinogenic effects.

Ibotenic acid has been shown to be a potent NMDA agonist as well as a powerful agonist at the group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Due to in vivo decarboxylation, ibotenic acid is metabolized to muscimol and thus has many similar pharmacological characteristics.

Toxicity and harm potential

The LD50 of muscimol in rat is 45mg/kg orally and in mice is 20mg/kg orally.[2]

Similar species

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Hunting psychoactive mushrooms in nature can be very dangerous.

Caution is advised because poisonous or deadly mushrooms can easily be mistaken for edible ones.

Amanita regalis - Psychoactive - This species contains ibotenic acid and muscimol.
Amanita caesarea - Edible, but not recommended.
Amanita pantherina - Psychoactive - This species contains ibotenic acid and muscimol.
Amanita phalloides - Deadly - This species contains α-amanitin and β-Amanitin which has lead to numerous deaths.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Multi-sensory effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
We also recommend that you practice diligent independent research and the most thorough harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Since muscimol and ibotenic acid are GABAA agonists, it may be harmful to combine it with other GABAergic depressants such as benzodiazepines or barbiturates. Ibotenic acid is also known to be a neurotoxin, acting via the NMDA receptor and metabotropic glutamate receptor. It is wise to dry amanita muscarias in the oven or purchase pre-dried amanitas to ensure the ibotenic acid concentration is as low as possible.

One of the major dangers of amanita muscaria is misidentifying it as a different species of mushroom. Several other mushrooms in the genus amanita are toxic. One such mushroom, the amanita phalloides, better known as the death cap, contains α-amanitin and β-Amanitin, both of which are extremely potent RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III inhibitors which damage virtually every tissue in the body. As the name suggests, the amanita muscaria contains the chemical muscarine, a muscarinic acetylcholine agonist which is known to cause seizures; however, the mushroom contains very low amounts that are highly unlikely to pose any significant harm.

Amanita muscaria mushrooms are not known to be either addictive, nor dependence-forming, and reports even show that desire to redose goes down with usage, however there is no research on this topic.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Legal status

Amanita muscaria grows naturally and is legal to grow, sell and consume in most parts of the world. It is, however, restricted in some countries.

  • Australia: The muscimol present in amanita muscaria is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015).[3] A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused and the manufacture, possession, sale or use of is prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities.[3]
  • Netherlands: Amanita muscaria and amanita pantherina are illegal to buy, sell, or possess since December 2008. Possession of amounts larger than 0.5 g dried or 5 g fresh lead to a criminal charge.[4]
  • United Kingdom: It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[5]

See also

External links

References

  1. Fuhrer BA. (2005). A field guide to Australian fungi. Melbourne: Bloomings Books. p. 24.
  2. https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13667m.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Poisons Standard October 2015". Federal Register of Legislation. 
  4. "wetten.nl - Regeling - Opiumwet - BWBR0001941". wetten.overheid.nl (in Dutch). 
  5. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted