|Summary sheet: Mexedrone|
|Psychoactive class||Stimulant, Entactogen|
|Routes of Administration|
This compound has little to no history of human usage prior to its release in August 2015 as a newly available grey area research chemical. It has been primarily marketed as a legal alternative to mephedrone although anecdotal reports seem to universally suggest that it is largely inferior in its recreational effects due to its weaker potency, lack of stimulation and euphoria. It may have been developed as a result of another much more effective, but problematic mephedrone derivative, N-methoxymephedrone.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal status
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Mexedrone, or 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-1-one, is a synthetic molecule of the cathinone family. Cathinones are structurally similar to amphetamines. They contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines and cathinones are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. Cathinones contain an additional ketone group bonded at R1.
Mexedrone contains additional methyl substitutions at RN (similar to MDMA and methamphetamine) and R4 of its phenyl ring. Mexedrone is named for the methoxy group (C3O-) bound to the methyl group located at Rα. Mexedrone is closely analogous to mephedrone, however, mephedrone lacks the additional methoxy group bonded to the α-methyl group.
Mexedrone acts as a releasing agent of serotonin and a reuptake inhibitor for monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline . Despite its chemical similarity to mephedrone, it lacks the dopamine and noradrenaline releasing properties, and is approximately 10-20x weaker in its reuptake inhibiting and serotonin releasing properties.
This increase in neurotransmitters provides an explanation for the euphoric and anecdotal stimulating effects induced by this experience. The serotonergic activity with lack of significant dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity is similar to that of MDAI and consistent with usage reports that often state that mexedrone is more sedating than stimulating.
Due to the much lower potency (1/7 to 1/20th at different monoamine transporters) compared to mephedrone, considerably higher doses are required to achieve noticeable effects.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Physical euphoria
- Tactile enhancement
- Sedation - The biggest difference between mexedrone and mephedrone is that it primarily results in moderate sedation over stimulation and can therefore discourage physical activities such as running, dancing or climbing.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of mexedrone can be described as a mild soft and warm tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Increased perspiration
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational mexedrone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because mexedrone has very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal reports from those who have tried mexedrone within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of mexedrone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of mexedrone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Mexedrone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of mexedrone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- 25x-NBOMe - Both the NBOMe series and this compound induce powerful stimulation and their interaction may cause severe side effects. These can include thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and heart failure (in extreme cases).
- Alcohol - It is dangerous to combine alcohol, a depressant, with stimulants due to the risk of excessive intoxication. Stimulants decrease the sedative effect of alcohol which is the main factor most people consider when determining their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the effects of alcohol will be significantly increased, leading to intensified disinhibition as well as respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - This combination may cause increased heart rate and panic attacks.
- MXE - Increased heart rate and blood pressure may occur.
- Tramadol - This combination can increase the risk of seizures.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations in the list below may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels.
- MAOIs such as syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants
- Serotonin releasers such as MDMA, 4-FA, MDAI and αMT
- Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
Mexedrone is currently thought to be a legal grey area drug worldwide and is easily accessible through the use of online research chemical vendors. However, this does not guarantee anyone to be immune from legal prosecution should they be found in possession of this substance as the legality is likely to vary from country to country.
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- Welsh Emerging Drugs & Identification of Novel Substances Project | http://www.wedinos.org/db/materials/view/00716
- Dangerous new legal high - dubbed the new Meow Meow - flooding Britain's streets | http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/dangerous-new-legal-high-dubbed-6622118
- New Legal High Similar To Banned Mephedrone Set To Sweep Britain | http://www.unilad.co.uk/drugs/new-legal-high-similar-to-banned-mephedrone-set-to-sweep-britain/
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted