Bromantane

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Summary sheet: Bromantane
Bromantane
Bromantane.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Bromantane, Bromantan, Ladasten
Substitutive name Bromantane
Systematic name N-(4-Bromophenyl)adamantan-2-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Stimulant / Nootropic
Chemical class Adamantane
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Bioavailability 42%[1]
Threshold < 10 mg
Light 10 - 50 mg
Common 50 - 100 mg
Strong 100 - 200 mg
Heavy 200 mg +
Duration
Total 6 - 10 hours
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 2 - 4 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Interactions


Bromantane (trade name Ladasten / Ладастен) is a Russian pharmaceutical substance developed in the late 1980s that possesses both stimulant and anxiolytic properties.[2] Although it is a commonly used medication in Russia and surrounding countries, it has not gained widespread recognition or pharmaceutical use in other countries. During the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, 5 different Russian athletes tested positive for bromantane use.[3]

A study conducted on human subjects displayed bromantane's ability to improve endurance and work capacity during stressful and intense conditions.[4] This is because bromantane works as an actoprotector, a substance that makes the body more stable under physical duress without increasing oxygen consumption.[5]

Chemistry

Adamantane molecule

Bromantane is a chemical derivative of adamantane, a polyhedral organic compound containing four fused cyclohexane rings. Bromantane's structure consists of adamantane bound at R2 to a nitrogenous group which is in turn bonded to a phenyl ring substituted at R4 with a bromine group.

Pharmacology

Bromantane is atypical among stimulants in the sense that it inhibits serotonin reuptake in addition to inhibiting dopamine reuptake. It also increases levels of norepinephrine, but its means of doing so are unclear.[6] Bromantane's anxiolytic properties are due to its strengthening of GABA-ergic mediation.[7]

Although not relevant at clinical dosages, bromantane has been found to produce anticholinergic effects, including both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic actions, at very high doses in animals.[8][9]

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.


Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding or correcting it.
We also recommend that you conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Lethal dosage

The LD50 of bromantane in mice has been established at 8100 mg/kg.[10]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Legal issues

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Russia: In Russia Bromantane has been discontinued in 2017 and will not be available in the nearest future.[citation needed]
  • United States: Bromantane is uncontrolled in the United States and has not been approved by the FDA for human use. However, this has led nootropic vendor websites to sell bromantane under the label of "not for human consumption."[citation needed]

See also

External links

Literature

  • Reichlin, S. (1969). Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. The American Journal of The Medical Sciences (Vol. 258). https://doi.org/10.1097/00000441-196911000-00008
  • Krapivin, S. V, Sergeeva, S. A., & Morozov, I. S. (1993). [A quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalographic analysis of the action of bromantane]. Biulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii I Meditsiny, 116(11), 515–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8312546
  • Burnat, P., Payen, A., Brumant-Payen, C. Le, Hugon, M., & Ceppa, F. (1997). Bromontan, a new doping agent. The Lancet, 350(9082), 963–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63310-7
  • Viatleva, O. A., Barchukov, V. G., Morozov, I. S., Salenko, I. A., & Zhirnov, E. N. (2000). [The neuro- and psychophysiological effects of bromantane]. Voenno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal, 321(8), 61–5, 96. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10998997
  • Iezhitsa, I. N., Spasov, A. A., & Bugaeva, L. I. (2001). Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 23(2), 213–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-0362(01)00119-2
  • Iezhitsa, I. N., Spasov, A. A., Bugaeva, L. I., & Morozov, I. S. (2002). Toxic effect of single treatment with bromantane on neurological status of experimental animals. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 133(4), 380–383. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016206306875
  • Oliynyk, S., & Oh, S. (2012). The pharmacology of actoprotectors: Practical application for improvement of mental and physical performance. Biomolecules and Therapeutics, 20(5), 446–456. https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.5.446
  • Morozov, I. S., Klimova, N. V, Karpova, T. D., & Shestopalov, S. S. (n.d.). [The characteristics of the neuropsychotropic activity of bromantane in laboratory animals]. Eksperimental’naia I Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia, 62(2), 3–6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10340117
  • Kudrin, V. S., Sergeeva, S. A., Krasnykh, L. M., Miroshnichenko, I. I., Grekhova, T. V, & Gaĭnetdinov, R. R. (n.d.). [The effect of bromantane on the dopamin- and serotoninergic systems of the rat brain]. Eksperimental’naia I Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia, 58(4), 8–11. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7580761

References

  1. The Pharmacology of Actoprotectors: Practical Application for Improvement of Mental and Physical Performance (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762282/
  2. Krapivin, S. V, Sergeeva, S. A., & Morozov, I. S. (1993). [A quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalographic analysis of the action of bromantane]. Biulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii I Meditsiny, 116(11), 515–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8312546
  3. Burnat, P., Payen, A., Brumant-Payen, C. Le, Hugon, M., & Ceppa, F. (1997). Bromontan, a new doping agent. The Lancet, 350(9082), 963–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63310-7
  4. Viatleva, O. A., Barchukov, V. G., Morozov, I. S., Salenko, I. A., & Zhirnov, E. N. (2000). [The neuro- and psychophysiological effects of bromantane]. Voenno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal, 321(8), 61–5, 96. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10998997
  5. Oliynyk, S., & Oh, S. (2012). The pharmacology of actoprotectors: Practical application for improvement of mental and physical performance. Biomolecules and Therapeutics, 20(5), 446–456. https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.5.446
  6. Kudrin, V. S., Sergeeva, S. A., Krasnykh, L. M., Miroshnichenko, I. I., Grekhova, T. V, & Gaĭnetdinov, R. R. (n.d.). [The effect of bromantane on the dopamin- and serotoninergic systems of the rat brain]. Eksperimental’naia I Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia, 58(4), 8–11. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7580761
  7. Oliynyk, S., & Oh, S. (2012). The pharmacology of actoprotectors: Practical application for improvement of mental and physical performance. Biomolecules and Therapeutics, 20(5), 446–456. https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.5.446
  8. [The mechanisms of the neurotropic action of bromantan]. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10198757
  9. Toxic effect of single treatment with bromantane on neurological status of experimental animals. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124651
  10. Morozov, I. S., Klimova, N. V, Karpova, T. D., & Shestopalov, S. S. (n.d.). [The characteristics of the neuropsychotropic activity of bromantane in laboratory animals]. Eksperimental’naia I Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia, 62(2), 3–6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10340117