5F-PB-22

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Summary sheet: 5F-PB-22
5F-PB-22
Molecular structure of 5F-PB-22
5F-PB-22.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Substitutive name 5F-PB-22
Systematic name 1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid 8-quinolinyl ester
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold < 1 mg
Light 1 - 3 mg
Common 3 - 5 mg
Strong 5 - 8 mg
Heavy 8 mg +
Duration
Total 90 minutes
Onset 10 seconds
Peak 30 minutes
Offset 1 hour
After effects 15 minutes
Oral
Dosage
Threshold < 1 mg
Light 1 - 3 mg
Common 3 - 5 mg
Strong 5 - 8 mg
Heavy 8 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 3 hours
Onset 30 minutes
Peak 1.5 hours
Offset 1 hours
After effects 30 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

5F-PB-22 (1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid 8-quinolinyl ester)[1][2] is a synthetic cannabinoid[3] and agonist of the cannabinoid receptors which produces predominantly sedating subjective effects somewhat similar to that of cannabis. There is very little information regarding the pharmacology of this compound within the scientific literature. Despite this, however, it has been sold as a grey area research chemical through online vendors.

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. 5F-PB-22 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Five deaths have been associated with the use of 5F-PB-22 in the United States.[4] Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.

Chemistry

5F-PB-22, or quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-8-carboxylate, is a synthetic indole cannabinoid as it contains a substituted core indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. 5F-PB-22 is an ether with formula R-O-R', which can be understood as a substance with two sub-units joined through an oxygen bridge. The indole group of 5F-PB-22 is substituted at R5 with a fluoropentyl chain, a substitution shared with 5F-AKB48. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carboxylic acid group. The terminal oxygen of this carboxylic acid is bonded through an ether bond to a quinoline group at location R8 of the heterocycle.

Pharmacology

Although this substance has not been formally studied, from analysis of the structure, it is presumed that 5F-PB-22 has a similar binding profile to that of other cannabinoids and matches many of the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabinoid high experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Visual effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Combinational effects

  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
  • Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that people smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 5F-PB-22 use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 5F-PB-22 has very little history of human usage. Informal experiments have shown that overdose will cause physical discomfort including heart palpitations, vertigo and sedation at much lower than dangerous doses, usually causing the user to suffer large amounts of anxiety or to fall asleep.

There have been many hospital reports involving 5F-PB-22, as well as cases of post-mortem analysis involving 5F-PB-22.[14] Five deaths have been associated with the use of 5F-PB-22 in the United States.[15]

It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis[16], particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[17][18][19]

As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of 5F-PB-22 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 5F-PB-22 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 5F-PB-22 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of 5F-PB-22 all cannabinoidss will have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

5F-PB-22 was developed to bypass drug prohibition laws which have banned the possession and sale of many synthetic cannabinoids. As such, it remains legal in most of the world.

  • United Kingdom - 5F-PB-22 is a class B drug under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on the 14th December 2016 and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. [20]
  • United States - In January 2014, 5F-PB-22 was designated as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States.[21]
  • Germany - On December 13, 2014 5F-PB-22 was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.[22]
  • Latvia - 5F-PB-22 is a Schedule I drug.[23]
  • China - As of October 2015 5F-PB-22 is a controlled substance in China.[24]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-014-7668-0
  2. https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13169m.pdf
  3. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/51
  4. Perspectives of drugs: synthetic cannabinoids in Europe (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/pods/synthetic-cannabinoids
  5. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  6. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  7. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  8. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  9. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  10. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  11. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  12. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  13. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  14. jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/05/29/jat.bku048.short
  15. Perspectives of drugs: synthetic cannabinoids in Europe (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/pods/synthetic-cannabinoids
  16. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  17. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  18. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  19. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  20. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2016/1109/made
  21. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm
  22. Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm
  23. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (Indola-3-karbonskābes esteri) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  24. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.