|Summary sheet: Deschloroketamine|
|Molecular structure of Deschloroketamine|
|Common names||Deschloroketamine, DCK, DXE, O-PCM|
|Routes of Administration|
Deschloroketamine (also known as 2'-Oxo-PCM, O-PCM, DXE, and DCK) is a novel synthetic dissociative substance of the arylcyclohexylamine chemical class which produces dissociative, anesthetic and hallucinogenic effects when administered.
Early discussion over DCK has revolved around speculation over claims of antibacterial or immunosuppressant properties. If this speculation is valid, it is possible that its prolonged use could potentially pose a serious threat to one's health and immune system, which is why misuse of this substance is highly discouraged and caution to avoid treating it like its parent compound, ketamine, is advised.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DCK, and it has a very brief history of human usage. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal issues
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 Literature
- 9 References
Deschloroketamine, or 2-Phenyl-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone, is classed as an arylcyclohexylamine drug. Ayrlcyclohexylamine drugs are named for their structures which include a cyclohexane ring bound to an aromatic ring along with an amine group. Descholoroketamine contains a phenyl ring bonded to a cyclohexane ring substituted with an oxo group (cyclohexanone). An amino methyl chain (-N-CH3) is bound to the adjacent alpha carbon (R2) of the cyclohexanone ring.
Descholoroketamine is a chiral molecule and is often produced as a racemate. Des- is a prefix used in chemistry to denote the absence of a functional group (in this case "chloro") hence deschloroketamine is named for lacking a chlorine substitution on its phenyl ring, which is found in ketamine.
Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely based on its structure and subjective effect similarities to other arylcyclohexylamine dissociatives such as 3-MeO-PCP, PCP and MXE. With this in mind, DCK is thought to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors, a type of glutamate receptor, allow for excitatory electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives inactivate the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to the general loss of bodily sensation, motor coordination, memory recall and eventually this substance's equivalent of the “k-hole.”
In terms of its subjective effects, this compound feels closer to that of ketamine and MXE than more stimulating, non-immobilizing compounds of the same class such as 3-MeO-PCP, O-PCE and PCP. It has therefore come to be considered a more suitable ketamine substitute than many other popular arylcyclohexylamines currently available on the research chemicals market, although users are advised to exercise extreme caution due to the health risks it may pose if it does possess its speculated antibacterial properties.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.
- Spontaneous physical sensations
- Motor control loss
- Muscle relaxation
- Perception of decreased weight
- Physical autonomy - This is reported to be especially present at low doses and to decrease as the dose increases.
- Physical euphoria - This is reported to be present even at low doses.
- Spatial disorientation
- Tactile suppression
- Optical sliding
- Decreased libido - This is not experienced in all environments, as Increased libido may also be experienced.
- Orgasm suppression - Orgasm enhancement can also be present, even at higher doses.
- Anxiety suppression
- Compulsive redosing
- Conceptual thinking
- Creativity enhancement
- Déjà vu
- Dream potentiation
- Cognitive euphoria
- Memory suppression
- Immersion enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Information processing suppression
- Time distortion
- Thought deceleration
There are currently anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DCK use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because DCK has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried DCK within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
As DCK has been speculated to have antibacterial properties, its prolonged use could potentially pose a serious threat to one's health and immune system.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other NMDA receptor antagonists, the chronic use of DCK can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of DCK develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DCK presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of DCK all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.
Urinary tract effects
In terms of its long-term health effects when used repeatedly and with excess for extended periods of time, DCK seems to exhibit almost identical bladder and urinary tract problems to those found within ketamine but to a lesser extent. This is suspected to be because DCK is more potent than ketamine, meaning that less of the drug needs to be consumed to produce analogous effects. Symptoms of ketamine-induced cystitis can become extremely serious and include:
- Urinary frequency - Urinary frequency is the need to empty the bladder every few minutes.
- Urinary urgency - This can be described as a sudden, compelling need to urinate.
- Urinary pressure - This is experienced as a constant sensation of fullness in the bladder that is unrelieved by urination.
- Pelvic and bladder pain - Pain can develop suddenly and severely, particularly as the bladder fills with urine.
- Hematuria - Hematuria is visible blood in the urine.
- Incontinence - This is the leakage of urine.
All of these, however, can easily be avoided by simply not using DCK on a daily or even weekly basis and manually limiting one's usage of the substance.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- Stimulants - This combination can potentiate the anxiety-inducing, manic, delusional and disinhibiting aspects of dissociatives, particularly those without pronounced motor and consciousness-suppression components like ketamine as this can increase the likelihood of a panic event or psychotic episode.
- Prominent examples include PCP and its analogs 3-MeO-PCP, MXE, and the diarylethylamine dissociatives like diphenidine or ephenidine. There is also evidence that suggests that combining these two increases their neurotoxicity. Anecdotally, worsened comedowns are also commonly reported when these two classes of substances are combined.
- Depressants - Because both depress the respiratory system, this combination can result in an increased risk of suddenly falling unconscious, vomiting and choking to death from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Latvia - Deschloroketamine is illegal in Latvia.
- United Kingdom - Deschloroketamine is a class B drug in the UK and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. As an N-alkyl derivative of 2-Amino-2-phenylcyclohexanone, it is covered by the arylcyclohexylamine generic clause added to the Misuse of Drugs Act by S.I. 2013/239, which came into effect on the 26th February 2013.
- Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 614–632. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1620
- Deschloroketamine Psychosis (PsychonautWiki) | https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Deschloroketamine#Toxicity_and_harm_potential
- Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of (18)F-labelled S-fluoroalkyl diarylguanidines: Novel high-affinity NMDA receptor antagonists for imaging with PET (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138515
- Patent US 3254124 - Aminoketones and methods for their production | http://www.google.com/patents/US3254124
- Preiss, D., & Tartar, A. (1998). U.S. Patent No. US5811464. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. | https://www.google.com/patents/US5811464
- Characterization of the designer drug deschloroketamine (2-methylamino-2-phenylcyclohexanone) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, multistage mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661982
- Alert: descloroketamina sold as ketamine in Barcelona | http://energycontrol.org/analisis-de-sustancias/resultados/alertas/560-alerta-descloroketamina-vendida-como-ketamina-en-barcelona.html
- The unknown effects of drought ketamine | http://www.vice.com/es/read/los-efectos-desconocidos-de-la-sequia-de-ketamina-719
- Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem | http://www.vm.gov.lv/images/userfiles/metodiskas_vadlinijas_080914.doc
- The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2013 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2013/239/introduction/made