|Summary sheet: Phenylpiracetam|
|Common names||Phenylpiracetam, Phenotropil, Carphedon|
|Psychoactive class||Nootropic / Stimulant|
|Routes of Administration|
Phenylpiracetam (also known as Phenotropil and Carphedon) is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. Although it is one of the first derivatives of piracetam to be synthesized and documented, research into its properties and efficacy in humans is limited.
Phenylpiracetam is readily available and sold through online vendors as a dietary supplement in the United States. Dosages are commonly reported to be around nearly twelve times those of noopept, making it less potent while offering comparable benefit.
Supplementation of phenylpiracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 100 - 300 mg taken over the course of a day, either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods (such as three doses of 100mg or 200mg).
Phenylpiracetam has protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia both in rat populations, suggesting it can aid recovery from deliriant intoxication and other typically cognitively impaired states by preserving adequate levels of acetylcholine as a primary mechanism.
Many people report that phenylpiracetam effects (especially stimulation) are more pronounced than other racetams. That may be due phenypiracetam's action as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor.
Phenylpiracetam is based on the piracetam molecular skeleton with an additional phenyl group attached to the pyrrolidone nucleus, albeit at a different steric location than the substituted phenyl groups observed on aniracetam or nefiracetam. Due to the chiral center at the fourth position of the pyrrolidinone ring, it can exist in an S or R-isomer; the clinically used form is the racemic mixture.
Phenylpiracetam is thought to increase acetylcholine release within hippocampal cells. As acetycholine is involved in the function of memory, this could potentially account for its reported nootropic effects.
Phenylpiracetam appears to have a series of trials conducted on it showing improvement in cognition in persons with cognitive decline from organic causes, with one study noting a minor improvement in cognition in those with youth epilepsy.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
In comparison to the effects of other nootropics such as noopept, this compound can be described as focusing primarily on cognitive focus over that of cognitive stimulation.
- Stimulation - The stimulation which phenylpiracetam presents in common doses can be considered as primarily subtle, comparable to that of caffeine, although in heavy doses it can be uncomfortably overstimulating.
- Increased heart rate - This may be a result of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition.
- Stamina enhancement - This effect is relatively mild compared to other stimulants such as amphetamine.
- Headaches - This is more prominent at higher doses. It can be promoted by redosing multiple times.
- Appetite suppression
- In terms of its cognitive effects, this compound can be described as a stimulating.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Several studies suggest that this substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time although it is worth noting that the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from those within the community who have tried phenylpiracetam suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
The median lethal dosage (LD50) of phenylpiracetam has not been officially published as it has low abuse potential, but is not known to be harmful when exceeding the recommended dosage range.
Tolerance and addiction potential
The chronic use of phenylpiracetam can be considered as non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological dependence among users, although this fact has not been corroborated by clinical studies. Tolerance to many of the effects of phenylpiracetam develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Phenylpiracetam may presents cross-tolerance with all racetam nootropics, meaning that after the consumption of phenylpiracetam certain nootropics such as aniracetam and piracetam may have a reduced effect.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
Phenylpiracetam, being a member of the racetam family, currently is legally available to buy and sell in most countries, but may still vary by region.
- United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- My experience with phenylpiracetam - Brain Health
- Malykh, A. G., Sadaie, M. R. (12 February 2010). "Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders". Drugs. 70 (3): 287–312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000. ISSN 1179-1950.
- Valzelli, L., Baiguerra, G., Giraud, O. (June 1986). "Difference in learning and retention by Albino Swiss mice. Part III. Effect of some brain stimulants". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 8 (6): 337–341. ISSN 0379-0355.
- Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil): The Definitive Resource & Reviews | http://www.nootropicsjournal.com/phenylpiracetam/
- Firstova, Yu. Yu., Abaimov, D. A., Kapitsa, I. G., Voronina, T. A., Kovalev, G. I. (1 June 2011). "The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task". Neurochemical Journal. 5 (2): 115–125. doi:10.1134/S1819712411020048. ISSN 1819-7132.
- Use of (r)-phenylpiracetam for the treatment of sleep disorders
- Zvejniece, L., Svalbe, B., Veinberg, G., Grinberga, S., Vorona, M., Kalvinsh, I., Dambrova, M. (November 2011). "Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. 109 (5): 407–412. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00742.x. ISSN 1742-7843.
- Savchenko, A. I., Zakharova, N. S., Stepanov, I. N. (2005). "[The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions]". Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova. 105 (12): 22–26. ISSN 1997-7298.
- Gustov, A. A., Smirnov, A. A., Korshunova, I. A., Andrianova, E. V. (2006). "[Phenotropil in the treatment of vascular encephalopathy]". Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova. 106 (3): 52–53. ISSN 1997-7298.
- Lybzikova, G. N., Iaglova, Z. S., Kharlamova, I. S. (2008). "[The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsy]". Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova. 108 (2): 69–70. ISSN 1997-7298.
- Malykh, A. G., Sadaie, M. R. (1 February 2010). "Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs". Drugs. 70 (3): 287–312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000. ISSN 1179-1950.
- Psychoactive Substances Act 2016