Phenylpiracetam

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Summary sheet: Phenylpiracetam
Phenylpiracetam
Molecular structure of Phenylpiracetam
Phenylpiracetam.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Phenylpiracetam, Phenotropil, Carphedon
Substitutive name 4-Phenylpiracetam
Systematic name (R,S)-2-(2-Oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold < 50 mg
Light 50 - 100 mg
Common 100 - 200 mg
Strong 200 - 400 mg
Heavy 400 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 3 hours (some users have reported effects lasting an entire day)[1]
Onset 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 1 hour









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Phenylpiracetam (also known as Phenotropil and Carphedon) is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs.[2][3] Although it is one of the first derivatives of piracetam to be synthesized and documented, research into its properties and efficacy in humans is limited.

Phenylpiracetam is readily available and sold through online vendors as a dietary supplement in the United States. Dosages are commonly reported to be around nearly twelve times those of noopept, making it less potent while offering comparable benefit.

Supplementation of phenylpiracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 100 - 300 mg taken over the course of a day,[4] either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods (such as three doses of 100mg or 200mg).

Phenylpiracetam has protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia both in rat populations, suggesting it can aid recovery from deliriant intoxication and other typically cognitively impaired states by preserving adequate levels of acetylcholine as a primary mechanism.[5]

Chemistry

Phenylpiracetam is based on the piracetam molecular skeleton with an additional phenyl group attached to the pyrrolidone nucleus, albeit at a different steric location than the substituted phenyl groups observed on aniracetam or nefiracetam. Due to the chiral center at the fourth position of the pyrrolidinone ring, it can exist in an S or R-isomer; the clinically used form is the racemic mixture.[6]

Pharmacology

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Phenylpiracetam is thought to increase acetylcholine release within hippocampal cells.[7] As acetycholine is involved in the function of memory, this could potentially account for its reported nootropic effects.

Phenylpiracetam appears to have a series of trials conducted on it[8][9] showing improvement in cognition in persons with cognitive decline from organic causes, with one study noting a minor improvement in cognition in those with youth epilepsy.[10]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

In comparison to the effects of other racetam nootropics such as noopept, this compound can be described as focusing primarily on cognitive focus over that of cognitive stimulation.

Sensory effects

Although these effects are not universal, certain people may experience sensory enhancements under the influence of this compound.

Physical effects

  • Stimulation - The stimulation which phenylpiracetam presents can be considered as primarily subtle, comparable to that of caffeine.

Cognitive effect

In terms of its cognitive effects, this compound can be described as a stimulating.

Toxicity and harm potential

Several studies suggest that this substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time[11] although it is worth noting that the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from those within the community who have tried phenylpiracetam suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Lethal dosage

The median lethal dosage (LD50) of phenylpiracetam has not been officially published as it has low abuse potential, but is not known to be harmful when exceeding the recommended dosage range.

Tolerance and addiction potential

The chronic use of phenylpiracetam can be considered as non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological dependence among users, although this fact has not been corroborated by clinical studies. Tolerance to many of the effects of phenylpiracetam develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Phenylpiracetam may presents cross-tolerance with all racetam nootropics, meaning that after the consumption of phenylpiracetam certain nootropics such as noopept and piracetam may have a reduced effect.

Legality

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As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Phenylpiracetam, being a member of the racetam family, currently is legally available to buy and sell in most countries, but may still vary by region.

  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[12]

See also

External links

References

  1. http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/15449-my-experience-with-phenylpiracetam/
  2. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767
  3. Difference in learning and retention by Albino Swiss mice. Part III. Effect of some brain stimulants | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3736279
  4. Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil): The Definitive Resource & Reviews | http://www.nootropicsjournal.com/phenylpiracetam/
  5. The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task | https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1819712411020048
  6. Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21689376
  7. [The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions]. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447562
  8. [Phenotropil in the treatment of vascular encephalopathy]. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16608112
  9. [The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions]. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447562
  10. [The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsy]. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646385
  11. Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs | https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165%2F11319230-000000000-00000
  12. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted