Oxiracetam

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Summary sheet: Oxiracetam
Oxiracetam
Oxiracetam.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Oxiracetam
Systematic name (RS)-2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Nootropic
Chemical class Racetam
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 250 - 500 mg
Light 500 - 1200 mg
Common 1200 - 1800 mg
Strong 1800 - 2400 mg
Heavy 2400 mg +
Duration
Total 2 - 4 hours
Onset 30 - 90 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Oxiracetam (ISF 2522) is a mild central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs.[1][2] Although it is one of the first known and synthesized derivatives of piracetam, it's research and efficacy in humans is limited.

Oxiracetam is readily available and sold through online vendors as a dietary supplement in the United States. Dosages are nearly twenty times those of noopept, making it less potent while offering comparable benefit.

Supplementation of oxiracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 1,200-2,400mg taken over the course of a day,[3] either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods (such as three doses of 400mg or 800mg).

Oxiracetam has moderately protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia both in rat populations and in human populations, suggesting it can aid recovery from deliriant intoxication and other typically cognitively impaired states by preserving adequate levels of acetylcholine as a primary mechanism.[4][5]

Chemistry

Oxiracetam, or (RS)-2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide, is a synthetic compound of the racetam family. Racetams share a pyrrolidine nucleus, a five member nitrogenous ring with a ketone bonded oxygen at R2. This 2-pyrrolidone ring is bound to the terminal carbon of an acetamide group, an ethyl amide chain with a ketone bond (C=O) at the alpha carbon. Oxiracetam is substituted with an additional hydroxy group at R4, which is a chiral center for the molecule. Oxiracetam is presumably produced as a racemate of its enantiomers. Oxiracetam is structurally analogous to piracetam, which lacks the R4 hydroxy substitution of oxiracetam.[6]

Pharmacology

Oxiracetam has been shown to increase acetylcholine release within hippocampal cells.[7] As acetycholine is involved in the function of memory consolidation, this could potentially account for its nootropic effects.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.


Physical effects
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Auditory effects
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Cognitive effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

Several studies suggest that this substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time[8][9][10] although it is worth noting that the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried oxiracetam within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Lethal dosage

The median lethal dosage (LD50) of oxiracetam has not been officially published as it has low abuse potential, but is not known to be harmful in it's recommended dosage range.

Tolerance and addiction potential

The chronic use of oxiracetam can be considered as non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological dependence among users, although this fact has not been corroborated by clinical studies. Tolerance to many of the effects of oxiracetam develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Oxiracetam may presents cross-tolerance with all racetam nootropics, meaning that after the consumption of oxiracetam certain nootropicss such as noopept and piracetam may have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Oxiracetam, being a member of the racetam family, currently is legally available to buy and sell in most countries, but may still vary by region.

  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[11]

See also

External links

References

  1. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767
  2. Difference in learning and retention by Albino Swiss mice. Part III. Effect of some brain stimulants | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3736279
  3. Nootreviews Oxiracetam Guide | http://nootreviews.com/oxiracetam
  4. Effects of acute doses of oxiracetam in the scopolamine model of human amnesia. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7870912
  5. Effect of oxiracetam on scopolamine-induced amnesia in the rat in a spatial learning task. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1448491
  6. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767
  7. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1990.tb14676.x/abstract
  8. Neuropsychological results of long-term therapy with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia in comparison with a control group | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2518332
  9. CNS pharmacology and clinical therapeutic effects of oxiracetam | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3594458
  10. Oxiracetam pharmacokinetics following single and multiple dose administration in the elderly | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3691580
  11. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted