Aniracetam

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Summary sheet: Aniracetam
Aniracetam
Molecular structure of Aniracetam
Aniracetam.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Aniracetam
Systematic name N-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Nootropic
Chemical class Racetam
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 350 - 500 mg
Light 500 - 1200 mg
Common 1200 - 1800 mg
Strong 1800 - 2400 mg
Heavy 2400 mg +
Duration
Total 3 - 5 hours
Onset 45 - 90 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Aniracetam (Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan, and systematically as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs.[1][2] Although it is one of the first known and synthesized derivatives of piracetam, its research and efficacy in humans is limited.

Aniracetam is readily available and sold through online vendors as a dietary supplement in the United States. Dosages are nearly fifteen times those of noopept, making it less potent while offering comparable benefit.

Supplementation of aniracetam tends to be in the dosage range of 800-2500mg taken over the course of a day,[3] either in two to three evenly spread dosing periods, such as three doses of 400mg or 800mg.

Aniracetam has protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia both in rat populations and in human populations, suggesting it can aid recovery from deliriant intoxication and other typically cognitively impaired states by preserving adequate levels of acetylcholine as a primary mechanism.[4][5]

Chemistry

Aniracetam is a pyrrolidinone compound of the racetam family, and has an additional anisoyl ring with a methoxy group at the lone para position. (replacing the amine group of piracetam) with an O-methoxy group on the furthest binding point. Its structure is dissimilar to that of oxiracetam (which is quite similar to piracetam) and pramiracetam (a fairly unique structure) Aniracetam is related structurally to nefiracetam.[6]

Pharmacology

Aniracetam is thought to increase acetylcholine release within hippocampal cells.[7] As acetycholine is involved in the function of memory, this could potentially account for its nootropic effects.

In addition, aniracetam has been shown to modulate AMPA receptors,[8] GABAergic neurotransmission,[9] and dopaminergic neurotransmission.[10]

Subjective effects

In comparison to the effects of other racetam nootropics such as noopept, this compound can be described as focusing primarily on physical stimulation over that of cognitive stimulation. The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Sensory effects
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Cognitive effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

Several studies suggest that this substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time.[11] although it is worth noting that the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried aniracetam within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly. However, nothing can be completely guaranteed.

Despite its presumed safety, it is still strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Lethal dosage

The median lethal dosage (LD50) of aniracetam has not been officially published as it has low abuse potential, but is not known to be harmful in its recommended dosage.

Tolerance and addiction potential

The chronic use of aniracetam can be considered as non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological dependence among users, although this fact has not been confirmed or supported by clinical studies. Tolerance to many of the effects of aniracetam develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Aniracetam may presents cross-tolerance with all racetam nootropics, meaning that after the consumption of aniracetam certain nootropics such as noopept and piracetam may have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

Aniracetam, being a member of the racetam family, currently is legally available to buy and sell in most countries, but may still vary by region.

  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[12]

See also

External links

References

  1. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767
  2. Difference in learning and retention by Albino Swiss mice. Part III. Effect of some brain stimulants | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3736279
  3. Nootreviews Aniracetam Guide | http://www.nootreviews.com/aniracetam/
  4. Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8199398
  5. Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817363
  6. Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8199398
  7. Nootropic drug modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11259610
  8. Effects of several cerebroprotective drugs on NMDA channel function: evaluation using Xenopus oocytes and [3H]MK-801 binding. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1652446
  9. Nootropic Agents Enhance the Recruitment of Fast GABAA Inhibition in Rat Neocortex | https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/15/7/921/387971/Nootropic-Agents-Enhance-the-Recruitment-of-Fast
  10. Changes in the brain biogenic monoamines of rats, induced by piracetam and aniracetam. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6535371
  11. Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8199398
  12. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted