5F-AKB48

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Summary sheet: 5F-AKB48
5F-AKB48
Molecular structure of 5F-AKB48
5F-AKB48.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names 5F-AKB48, 5F-APINACA
Substitutive name 5F-APINACA
Systematic name N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold 0.5 mg
Light 0.5 - 1 mg
Common 1 - 2 mg
Strong 2 - 4 mg
Heavy 4 mg +
Duration
Total 30 - 60 minutes
Onset 0 - 20 minutes
Peak 10 - 30 minutes
Offset 5 - 10 minutes
After effects 15 - 30 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

5F-AKB48 (also known as 5F-APINACA) is a synthetic designer cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist for the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors[1]. It produces subjective effects somewhat similar to that of cannabis with a short duration and an emphasis on intense physical sensations. Its metabolism has been described in the scientific literature.[2][3][4][5] It was first identified in South Korea[6] and is available for sale as a grey area research chemical through online vendors.

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. 5F-AKB48 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple serious injuries deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.

Chemistry

5F-AKB48, or N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, is a synthetic indazole cannabinoid as it contains a substituted indazole group. This indazole moeity is substituted at R1 with a fluoropentyl chain, a substitution shared with 5F-PB-22. Additionally, the indazole is substituted at R3 with a carboxamide group. This carboxamide group is N-substituted at its terminal amine group with an adamantane group. This group consists of four fused cyclohexane rings in a unique structure called a diamondoid. 5F-AKB48 is an analog of STS-135 in which the core indole structure is substituted with an indazole base.

Pharmacology

Although this substance has not been formally studied, from analysis of the structure, it is presumed that 5F-AKB48 has a similar binding profile to that of other cannabinoids and matches many of the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabinoid high continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 5F-AKB48 use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 5F-AKB48 has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 5F-AKB48 within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Informal experiments have shown that overdose will cause physical discomfort including heart palpitations, vertigo and sedation at much lower than dangerous doses, usually causing the user to suffer large amounts of anxiety or to fall asleep.

It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids including 5F-AKB48 may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis[16], particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[17][18][19]

As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of 5F-AKB48 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of 5F-AKB48 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 5F-AKB48 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of 5F-AKB48 all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

  • United Kingdom - 5F-AKB48 is a class B drug under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on the 14th December 2016 and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. [20]
  • Brazil - Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[21]
  • Latvia: 5F-AKB48 is a Schedule I drug.[22]
  • Germany: 5F-APINACA is an Anlage II controlled drug in Germany since July 2013.
  • China: As of October 2015 5F-APINACA is a controlled substance in China.[23]
  • Czech Republic: 5F-APINACA is banned in the Czech Republic.[24]

See also

External links

References

  1. AKB48 (APINACA) and 5F-AKB48 (5F-APINACA) | http://deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/spice/akb48.pdf
  2. Simultaneous quantification of 37 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11419-015-0265-x
  3. Concentrations of APINACA, 5F-APINACA, UR-144 and its degradant product in blood samples from six impaired drivers compared to previous reported concentrations of other synthetic cannabinoids (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25485949
  4. Metabolites of 5F-AKB48, a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, identified in human urine and liver microsomal preparations using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24802286
  5. Pentylindole/Pentylindazole Synthetic Cannabinoids and Their 5-Fluoro Analogs Produce Different Primary Metabolites: Metabolite Profiling for AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721194
  6. Synthetic cannabinoids abused in South Korea: drug identifications by the National Forensic Service from 2009 to June 2013 | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11419-013-0213-6
  7. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  8. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  9. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  10. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  11. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  12. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  13. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  14. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  15. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  16. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  17. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  18. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  19. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  20. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2016/1109/made
  21. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  22. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (Indazola-3-karbonilatvasinājumi) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  23. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html
  24. Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.) | http://www.mzcr.cz/Admin/_upload/files/3/Nov%C3%A9%20PL.pdf