|Summary sheet: 3-FA|
|Common names||3-FA, PAL-353|
|Routes of Administration|
3-Fluoroamphetamine (3-FA) is a synthetic ring-substituted fluorinated amphetamine compound that produces potent classical stimulant effects that has been claimed to be "almost equipotent" with methamphetamine. It is one part of a series of designer fluorinated amphetamine analogs such as 2-FA, 2-FMA, 3-FEA, and 4-FA that are known for their euphoric and stimulating effects and growing popularity as research chemical substitutes for classical street stimulants.
3-FA, or 3-Fluoroamphetamine, is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine class. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα (i.e. amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines). 3-FA does not contain a methyl group bound to the terminal amine RN of the amphetamine core, which renders it structurally and functionally similar to amphetamine. 3-FA is the 3-fluorinated analogue of amphetamine.
Although 3-FA has not been formally studied on the same level as traditional amphetamines, it is not unreasonable to assume that just like other substituted amphetamines with substitutions at similar positions (with the notable exception of 4-FA), it most likely acts primarily as both a dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent, with modest selectivity for serotonin. This means it effectively increases the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain by binding to and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally clear and reuptake those molecules from the synaptic cleft for future reuse. This allows dopamine and norepinephrine to accumulate within the brain to extra-endogenous degrees, which is known to produce stimulating, motivatory and euphoric effects in humans.
3-FA is considered to be a potent and complex stimulant with mild entactogenic undertones when compared to other substances its class, like 4-FA. However, it does not have the productivity and focus-enhancing effects often claimed by users of 2-FA or 2-FMA which has had the effect of limiting its appeal.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Tactile enhancement - This component primarily tends to happen at higher doses only and is rarely observed lower to medium doses
- Physical euphoria
- Appetite suppression
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA as well as 2-FMA.
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
- Cognitive euphoria
- Thought acceleration
- Focus enhancement
- Anxiety suppression
- Analysis enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Compulsive redosing
- Increased music appreciation - This component primarily tends to happen at higher doses only, as low to medium doses of 3-FA are more focused and productivity-oriented.
- Time distortion - This can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would when sober.
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FA has an extremely short history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 3-FA within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is perhaps worth noting that in the field of medicinal chemistry, the fluorine substitution is sometimes seen as desirable in central nervous system pharmaceutical agents, and is a common practice due to the corresponding increase in lipophilicity granted by the substitute.
Regardless, due to its novelty and unstudied nature, it is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when experimenting with this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among a certain population of users. When dependence or addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 10 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FA presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FA all stimulants will have a reduced effect (especially including atypical stimulants one might not expect, like MDMA due to its reliance on dopamine and norepinephrine to exert its full euphoric effect).
Given its close equipotency to methamphetamine, it likely shares similar toxicity profiles, though this has yet to be scientifically validated.
Abuse of compounds within the amphetamine chemical class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.
Although many psychoactive substances are safe to use on their own, they can become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The list below contains some potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses but still increase the possibility of injury of death. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
- MAOIs - This combination may increase the amount of neurotransmitters such as dopamine to dangerous or even fatal levels. Examples include syrian rue, banisteriopsis caapi, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, αMT, and some antidepressants.
- Stimulants - 3-FA can be potentially dangerous in combination with other stimulants as it can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- 25x-NBOMe/25x-NBOH - Members of the 25x family are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with stimulants should be avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation. This can result in panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Alcohol can be dangerous to combine with stimulants due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effects of alcohol, which is the main factor people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects of alcohol are left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and respiratory depression. If combined, one should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be strictly avoided due to DXM's effects on serotonin and dopamine reuptake. This can lead to panic attacks, hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome.
- MXE - Combinations with MXE may dangerously elevate blood pressure and increase the risk of psychosis.
- Tramadol - Tramadol lowers the seizure threshold. Combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- MDMA - The neurotoxic effects of MDMA may be increased when combined with amphetamines.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart to dangerous levels.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
3-FA is currently a grey area compound within all parts of the world, meaning its regulation lies in a legal grey area and that it is not known to be specifically illegal ("scheduled") within any country. However, people may still be charged for its possession under certain circumstances such as under analogue laws and with intent to sell or consume.
- United States - 3-FA may be considered to be an analog of amphetamine, thus falling under the Federal Analogue Act. The Federal Analogue Act, 21 U.S.C. § 813, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act, allowing any chemical "substantially similar" to an illegal drug (in Schedule I or II) to be treated as if it were also in Schedule I or II, but only if it is intended for human consumption.
- United Kingdom - 3-FA is considered a Class A drug as a result of the amphetamine analogue clause of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
- China - As of October 2015 3-FA is a controlled substance in China.
- New Zealand: 3-FA is an amphetamine analogue, so is a Schedule 3 controlled substance in New Zealand.
- Negus, S. S., Mello, N. K., Blough, B. E., Baumann, M. H., & Rothman, R. B. (2006). Monoamine Releasers with Varying Selectivity for Dopamine/Norepinephrine versus Serotonin Release as Candidate "Agonist" Medications for Cocaine Dependence: Studies in Assays of Cocaine Discrimination and Cocaine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 320(2), 627-636. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.107383
- Isomeric fluoro-methoxy-phenylalkylamines: a new series of controlled-substance analogues (designer drugs) (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15639609
- Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074881
- Fluorine substituent effects (on bioactivity) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002211390100375X
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Hofmann FG (1983). A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780195030570.
- Treatment for amphetamine psychosis | 
- Stimulant Misuse: Strategies to Manage a Growing Problem | http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf
- Gillman, P. K. (2005). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(4), 434-441. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aei210
- Talaie, H., Panahandeh, R., Fayaznouri, M. R., Asadi, Z., & Abdollahi, M. (2009). Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(2), 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161089
- Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Legislation.gov.uk) |http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2/part/I
- "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.