Novel cognitive states

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A novel cognitive state can be defined as any alteration of one's consciousness which does not merely amplify or suppress familiar states of mind, but rather induces an experience that is qualitatively different from that of ordinary consciousness.

This page lists and describes the various novel states which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Cognitive euphoria

Main article: Cognitive euphoria

Cognitive euphoria (semantically the opposite of cognitive dysphoria) is medically recognized as a cognitive and emotional state in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement, and joy.[1] Although euphoria is an effect,[2] the term is also used colloquially to define a state of transcendent happiness combined with an intense sense of contentment. It has also been defined as an "affective state of exaggerated well-being or elation."[3]

In the context of psychoactive substance usage, many compounds induce states of euphoria regardless of the person's previous emotional state. It is most commonly induced under the influence of opioids, entactogens, stimulants, and GABAergics. However, it can also be induced in a less consistent fashion under the influence of hallucinogenics compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and cannabinoids

Cognitive dysphoria

Main article: Cognitive dysphoria

Dysphoria (semantically the opposite of euphoria) is medically recognized as a cognitive and emotional state in which a person experiences intense feelings of discomfort and unhappiness. It is often accompanied by strong feelings of anxiety and depression.[4] These feelings can vary in their intensity depending on the dosage consumed and the users susceptibility to mental instability. Although dysphoria is an effect,[5] the term is also used colloquially to define an intense state of general melancholic unhappiness combined with an overwhelming sense of discomfort and malaise.

In the context of psychoactive substance usage, many compounds induce states of dysphoria regardless of the person's previous emotional state. It is most commonly induced under the influence of common dosages of deliriants or during the after effects of almost any stimulant compound.

Conceptual thinking

Main article: Conceptual thinking

Conceptual thinking can be described as an alteration to the nature and content of one's internal thought stream. This alteration predisposes a user to think thoughts which are no longer primarily comprised of words and linear sentence structures. Instead, thoughts become equally comprised of what feels to be extremely detailed renditions of the innately understandable and internally stored concepts which words exist to label. Essentially, thoughts cease to be spoken by an internal narrator, and are instead “felt” and intuitively understood.

For example, if one were to think of an idea such as a "chair" during this state, one would not so much hear the word as part of an internal thought stream, but would feel the internally stored, pre-linguistic and innately understandable data which comprises the specific concept labelled within one's memory as a "chair". These conceptual thoughts are felt in a comprehensive level of detail that feels as if it is unparalleled within the primarily linguistic thought structure of everyday life. This is occassionally interpreted by those who undergo it as some sort of a "higher level of understanding".

During this experience, conceptual thinking can cause one to feel not just the entirety of a concept's attributed data, but also how a given concept relates with and depends upon other known concepts. This can result in the perception that one can better comprehend the complex interplay between an idea one is contemplating and how it relates to other ideas.

Conceptual thinking often coincides with personal bias suppression and analysis enhancement. It is a very common effect under the influence of common to heavy dosages of hallucinogens such as psychedelics and dissociatives. However, other compounds such as entactogens and cannnabinoids can inconsistently induce this effect under the influence of heavy dosages.

Delusions

Main article: Delusions

Delusions are spontaneously occurring false beliefs held with strong conviction regardless of evidence to the contrary, rational argument, or how much the belief seemingly contradicts the individual's prior understanding of the world.

In the context of psychoactive substances, many hallucinogens can induce temporary delusions as perspectives which one may slip into during high dosage experiences. They are most likely to occur during states of memory suppression and share common themes and elements with clinical schizophrenia. In most cases, these substance induced delusions can be broken out of when overwhelming evidence is provided to the contrary or when the person has sobered up enough to logically analyse the situation. It is exceedingly rare for hallucinogen induced delusions to persist into sobriety.

Types

All delusions can be categorized by whether or not they are bizarre and whether or not they are mood-congruent.

  • Bizarre delusion: A delusion that is characteristically absurd and completely implausible. An example of a bizarre delusion could be the belief that aliens have removed the delusional person's brain.[6]
  • Non-bizarre delusion: A delusion that, though false, is at least theoretically plausible. An example of this could be the belief that the delusional person is currently under police surveillance.[7]
  • Mood-congruent delusion: A delusion with content consistent with either a depressive or manic state. For example, a depressed person may believe that a news anchors on television highly disapproves of them as a person or that the world is ending. However, a manic person might believe that they are a powerful deity, that they have special talents, a special higher purpose, or are a famous person.[8]
  • Mood-neutral delusion: A delusion that does not relate to the sufferer's emotional state. For example, a belief that an extra limb is growing out of the back of one's head would likely be neutral to a persons depression or mania.[9]

Themes

In addition to these categories, delusions can be classified by their thematic content. Although delusions can have any theme, certain underlying themes are commonly found amongst different people. Some of the more common delusional themes which are induced by psychoactive substances are described and documented below:

Delusion of reference

Delusions of reference are perhaps the most common type of delusion. This delusion typically entails the falsely held belief that an insignificant remark, event, coincidence, or object in one's environment is either a reaction to the individual or has significant personal meaning relating directly back to the person's life. In psychiatry, delusions of reference form part of the diagnostic criteria for illnesses such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder. To a lesser extent, they can also be a symptom of paranoid personality disorder. They can also be caused by intoxication, especially with hallucinogens or during stimulant psychosis.

A list of common examples of this type of delusion and described and documented below:

  • Believing that everyone on a passing bus is talking about them
  • Believing that people on television or radio are talking about or talking directly to them
  • Believing that headlines or stories in newspapers are written especially for them
  • Believing that events (even world events) have been deliberately contrived for them, or have special personal significance for them
  • Believing that the lyrics of a song are specifically about them
  • Believing that the normal function of cell phones, computers, and other electronic devices are sending secret and significant messages that only they can understand or believe.
  • Believing that objects or events are being set up deliberately to convey a special or particular meaning to themselves
  • Believing that the slightest careless movement on the part of another person has a significant and deliberate meaning
  • Believing that posts on social network websites or Internet blogs have hidden meanings pertaining to them.

Delusion of sobriety

A delusion of sobriety typically entails the falsely held belief that one is perfectly sober despite obvious evidence to the contrary such as severe cognitive impairment, significant motor control loss and an inability to fully communicate with others.

Delusions of sobriety are the most common type of delusion experienced under the influence of GABAergic compounds such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.

Delusion of transcendence

Delusions of transcendence are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages psychedelic compounds, particularly during states of high level geometry, memory suppression, and internal hallucinations. They typically entail a falsely held belief that one has "transcended into a higher plane of existence" or has discovered the secret to "transcending" and will be able to implement it just as soon as one sobers up. Once this occurs, however, the supposed secret is found to be nonsensical, incorrect, or forgotten.

Delusion of enlightenment

Delusions of enlightenment typically entail the sudden realization the one has suddenly become "enlightened" and has figured out or been shown the answer or meaning to life, the universe and everything. This delusion may be accompanied with euphoria from the belief that one has learned the fundamental truth about life. During the experience, this answer is felt to be incredibly simplistic and self-evident but is immediately forgotten or realized to be nonsensical once the person has sufficiently sobered up.

Delusions of enlightenment are the most common type of delusion under the influence of short acting ego death inducing hallucinogenic compounds such as DMT, nitrous oxide and salvia.

Delusion of death

Delusions of death are the falsely held belief that one is about to die, is currently dying, no longer exists or has already died. This delusion seems to be a result of anxiety caused by misinterpreting the experience of losing one's sense of self during states of high level ego death. As can be predicted, a delusion of being dead or dying is usually very distressing for the person experiencing it.

Delusions of death are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages psychedelic and dissociative compounds.

Delusion of guilt

Delusions of guilt are caused by ungrounded and intense feelings of remorse or guilt that lead one to conclude that one must have committed some sort of unethical act. The supposed unethical act can range from something relatively mild such as the belief that one has cheated on their partner or it can be something much more serious such as the belief that one has murdered their friends and family.

Delusions of guilt are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages psychedelic and dissociative compounds.

Delusion of reality

Delusions of reality are the unfounded belief that something fictional such as the plot of a tv-show, film, videogame, or book is a real life event. This delusion may manifest as the perception that the fictional events are genuinely occurring in one's immediate vicinity, or simply that the media being portrayed is real. For example, one may have the sensation that fictional media is occuring around them, or may believe they are watching on a screen events occuring in real life, but elsewhere. This delusion seems to be a result of high level immersion enhancement combining with memory suppression to create a state of mind in which somebody is highly engrossed in media while no longer having a functional long term memory that can recall the difference between reality and fiction.

Delusions of reality are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of dissociative and occassionally psychedelic compounds.

Delusion of unreality

Delusions of unreality are the unfounded belief that one is currently inside of a videogame, dream, or movie and therefore that one's current actions will not have any real life consequences. Depending on the person, this delusion can sometimes result in committing crimes or violent acts. It seems to be a result of intense derealization combined with disinhibition and memory suppression to create an altered state of mind in which somebody mistakes reality for a fictional hallucination.

Delusions of unreality are commonly experienced under the influence of heavy dosages hallucinogens and occassionally during stimulant psychosis.

Delusion of grandiosity

Delusions of grandiosity are the unfounded belief that oneself or another person is or has become god-like, immortal, a visionary genius, or celebrity. They are rarely experienced under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelic compounds and occasionally during stimulant psychosis.

The delusion of having become godlike is seemingly a result of high level ego inflation and mania. The opposite experience of when a person thinks that a person or the people around them have become godlike while they have not is commonly the result of those people being more sober than the delusional person. This causes the delusional person to misinterpret that the other person/people are somehow more capable than a normal human being, when in fact it is just the delusional person who has become less capable due to cognitive suppressions such as memory suppression.

Delusional Parasitosis

Delusional parasitosis, also known as Ekbom's syndrome,[10][11] is a form of psychosis in which victims acquire a strong delusional belief that they are infested with parasites, whereas in reality no such parasites are present.[12] In the context of psychoactive substances, it is particularly common during stimulant psychosis after prolonged chronic usage of cocaine.[13]

Sufferers may injure themselves in attempts to rid themselves of the "parasites." Some are able to induce the condition in others through suggestion, in which case the term folie à deux may be applicable.[14][15] Nearly any marking upon the skin, or small object or particle found on the person or his clothing can be interpreted as evidence for the parasitic infestation, and sufferers commonly compulsively gather such "evidence" and then present it to medical professionals when seeking help.[16]

Depersonalization

Main article: Depersonalization

Depersonalization or depersonalisation (sometimes abbreviated as DP) can be described as an anomaly of self-awareness that consists of a feeling of watching oneself act as one normally would, while having no control over a situation. It can occur under the influence of hallucinogenic substances, particularly dissociatives, and may persist for some time after sobriety.[17] During this state, the affected person may feel that he or she is "on autopilot" and that the world has become vague, dreamlike, less real, or lacking in significance. Individuals who experience depersonalization often feel divorced from their own personal physicality by no longer sensing their body sensations, feelings, emotions and behaviors as belonging to a person or identity.[18] It is often claimed by people who have depersonalization that reality seems unreal, distant or hazy. Depersonalization can sometimes be distressing to the user, who may become disoriented by the loss of a sense that their self is the origin of their thoughts and actions. However, it does not have to be an inherently negative altered state of awareness, as it does not directly affect one's emotions or thought patterns.

It is perfectly normal for many people to slip into this state temporarily, often without even realizing it. For example, many people often note that they enter a detached state of autopilot during stressful situations or when performing monotonous routine tasks such as driving. This state of mind is also commonly associated with and occurs along side of a very similar psychological disorder known as derealization. While depersonalization is a subjective experience of unreality in one's sense of self, derealization is a perception of the unreality of the outside world.

In psychology, chronic depersonalization that persists during sobriety for prolonged periods of time is identified as "depersonalization disorder" and is classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. While degrees of depersonalization are common and can happen temporarily to anyone who is subject to an anxiety or stress provoking situation, chronic depersonalization is more common within individuals who have experienced a severe trauma or prolonged stress and anxiety. The symptoms of both chronic derealization and depersonalization are common within the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 26-74% and 31–66% at the time of a traumatic event.[19] It has also been demonstrated that derealization may be caused by a dysfunction within the brains visual processing center (occipital lobe) or the temporal lobe, which is used for processing the meaning of sensory input, language comprehension, and emotion association.[20]

Within the context of identity altering effects, depersonalization can be considered as being at the opposite end of the identity spectrum relative to states of unity and interconnectedness. This is because during depersonalisation, a person senses and attributes their identity to nothing, giving a sense of having no self. However, during a state of unity and interconnectedness, one senses and attributes their identity to everything, giving a sense that the entirety of existence is their self.

Depersonalization is a particularly common accompanying effect during states of hallucinogen induced anxiety. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds such as ketamine, MXE, DCK, and 3-MeO-PCP. However, it may also occur less commonly on other types of hallucinogens and during withdrawals from stimulants or depressants.

Depression

Main article: Depression

Depression can be described as a state of low mood and aversion to activity, which can affect a person's general sense of well-being in a negative manner. Depressed people often feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may have problems concentrating, remembering details, feeling emotions, connecting with other people or making decisions. The negative effects of depression may cause the person to contemplate or attempt to commit suicide.

Within the context of psychoactive substance usage, this effect is triggered as a temporary mind state under the influence of certain compounds and during the offset or withdrawals of many more. It is often accompanied by anxiety or irritability and can be considered as the polar opposite of cognitive euphoria. It is most commonly induced when a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen is used repeatedly for prolonged periods of time, when a user quits using a substance that they'd been using for a long period of time, or when a user is experiencing the comedown/crash of a euphoric compound. Psychoactive induced depression is often much shorter lasting than clinical depression, subsiding once the effects and/or after-effects of a drug have finished.

When not caused by drug use, in the context of formal psychology, these feelings can be classified as clinical depression or major depressive disorder by the DSM's diagnostic criteria when five (or more) specific symptoms from the list below have been present during the same 2-week period and the feelings represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms must also be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.[21]

  1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)
  2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation.)
  3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
  4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.
  5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
  6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
  7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).
  8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).
  9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

For a diagnosis of clinical depression to be accurate, the symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. They cannot be attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition. The occurrence of the major depressive episode must also not be better explained by another disorder on the schizophrenic or psychotic spectrum.

If you suspect that you are experiencing symptoms of depression, it is highly recommended that you seek out therapy, medical attention, or a support group.

Derealization

Main article: Derealization
An artistic replication of what it feels like to experience watching the world through a screen.

Derealization or derealisation (sometimes abbreviated as DR) can be described as an anomaly of self-awareness that consists of a feeling that the external world seems fundamentally unreal, dreamlike, distant, or lacking in substance, life and spontaneity. It can occur under the influence of hallucinogenic substances, particularly dissociatives, and may persist for some time after sobriety. People experiencing derealization often claim that reality persistently feels as if it is a dream, or something watched through a screen, like a film or videogame. These feelings can sometimes instill the person with a sensation of alienation and distance from those around them.

Depersonalization is not an inherently negative altered state of awareness, as it does not directly affect one's emotions or thought patterns. However, derealization can sometimes be distressing to the user, who may become disoriented by the loss of the innate sense that their external environment is genuinely real. This loss of the sense that the external world is real can in some cases make interacting with it feel inherently inauthentic and pointless.

This state of mind is commonly associated with and often coincides with the very similar psychological state known as depersonalization. While derealization is a perception of the unreality of the outside world, depersonalization is a subjective experience of unreality in one's sense of self.

In psychology, chronic derealization that persists during sobriety for prolonged periods of time, is not attributable to another disorder, and is distressful to the user is identified as "derealization disorder", classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. While degrees of derealization are common and can happen temporarily to anyone who is subject to an anxiety or stress provoking situation, chronic derealization is more common within individuals who have experienced a severe trauma or prolonged stress and anxiety. The symptoms of both chronic derealization and depersonalization are common within the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 26-74% and 31–66% at the time of a traumatic event.[22] It has been demonstrated that derealization may be caused by a dysfunction within the brains visual processing center (occipital lobe) or the temporal lobe, which is used for processing the meaning of sensory input, language comprehension, and emotion association.[23]

Derealization is a particularly common accompanying effect during states of hallucinogen induced anxiety. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of dissociative compounds such as ketamine, MXE, DCK, and 3-MeO-PCP. However, it may also occur less commonly on other types of hallucinogens and during withdrawals from stimulants or depressants.

Deja-Vu

Main article: Deja-Vu

Déjà vu or Deja vu can be described as the sudden sensation that a current event or situation has already been experienced at some point within the past when, in actuality, it hasn't. This a common phrase from the French language which translates literally into “already seen”. It is a well documented phenomenon that can commonly occur throughout both sober living and under the influence of hallucinogens.

Within the context of psychoactive substance usage, many compounds are commonly capable of inducing spontaneous and often prolonged states of mild to intense sensations of déjà vu. This can provide one with an overwhelming sense that they have “been here before”. The sensation is also often accompanied by a false feeling of familiarity with the current location or setting, the current physical actions being performed, the situation as a whole or the effects of the substance itself.

This effect is often triggered despite the fact that during the experience of it one can be rationally aware that the circumstances of the “previous” experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible.

However, it is worth noting that the experience of Déjà vu is extremely common in people who are completely sober. For example, a 2003 review found that roughly two-thirds of the general population have had déjà vu experiences.[24] Other studies confirm that déjà vu is a common experience in healthy individuals, with between 60% and 70% of individuals reporting it, particularly within those who are between the ages of 15 and 25.[25]

Scientific explanations of déjà vu typically conclude that this state of mind is as an anomaly of memory, which creates the distinct impression that an experience is "being recalled" when it is actually occurring within the present moment.[26][27] This explanation is supported by the fact that the sense of "recollection" at the time is strong in most cases, but the circumstances of the "previous" experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are believed to be improbable or impossible.

Another plausible theory attributes the feeling of having previously experienced something that is currently experienced to that of having dreamt about a similar situation or place and then forgetting about it until one is mysteriously reminded of the situation or the place while awake.[28]

Déjà vu is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as cannabis, ketamine, DMT, DXM and psilocin. The effect can also be triggered by the experience of short term memory suppression and thought loops.

Ego replacement

Main article: Ego replacement

Ego replacement can be described as the sudden perception that one's sense of self and personality has been replaced with that of another persons, fictional characters, animals or inaminate objects perspective. This can manifest in a number of ways which include but are not limited to feeling is one has literally become another human, animal, or alien consciousness. During this state, the person will be unlikely to realize that their personality has been temporarily swapped with anothers and will usually not remember their previous life.

Ego replacement is a rare experience but can be extremely convincing and is often accompanied by other effects such as delusions, psychosis, or memory suppression. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Enhancement and suppression cycles

Enhancement and suppression cycles can be described as an effect which results in two opposite states of mind that do not occur simultaneously but instead swap between each other at seemingly random intervals. These intervals are generally 10 - 30 minutes in length but can occasionally be considerably shorter.

The first of these two alternate states can be described as the experience of a range of cognitive suppressions which drastically inhibit one's ability to think clearly. These typically include specific effects such as thought deceleration, thought disorganization, creativity suppression, language suppression, and analysis suppression.

The second of these two alternate states can be described as the experience of cognitive enhancements which drastically improve one's ability to think clearly. This includes analysis enhancement, thought organization, thought acceleration, creativity enhancement, and thought connectivity.

Enhancement and suppression cycles is a relatively uncommon effect which primarily occurs under the influence of common to heavy dosages of tryptamine psychedelics. These commonly include, 4-aco-dmt, ayahuasca, and psilocin.

Perceived exposure to inner mechanics of consciousness

Perceived exposure to inner mechanics of consciousness can be described as a novel state of mind which produces the experience of exposing one to an array of complex, autonomously-generated, cognitive sensations and conceptual thoughts which contain detailed sets of innately readable information.

The information within these sensations is felt to convey the organization, structure, architecture, framework and inner mechanics of the underlying programming behind all conscious and subconscious psychological processes. Those who undergo this effect commonly interpret the experience as suddenly having perceivable access to the inner workings of either the universe, reality, or consciousness itself.

The experience of this component often feels capable of bestowing specific pieces of information onto trippers regarding the nature of human consciousness and sometimes reality itself. The pieces of information felt to be revealed are nearly limitless in possibility, but some common sensations, revelations, and concepts are manifested between individuals. These generally include:

  • Insight into the processes behind the direction, behavior, and content of one's conscious thought stream
  • Insight into the processes behind the organization, behavior, and content of one's short and long-term memory
  • Insight into the selection and behavior of one's responses to external input and decision-making processes as based upon their individual personality
  • Insight into the origin and influences behind one’s character traits and beliefs

These specific pieces of information are often felt and understood to be a profound unveiling of an undeniable truth at the time. Afterwards, they are usually realized to be ineffable due to the limitations of human language and cognition, or simply nonsensical and delusional due to the impairment caused by of other accompanying cognitive effects.

Perceived exposure to inner mechanics of consciousness is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelic tryptamines such as psilocin, ayahuasca, DMT, and 4-AcO-DMT. The effect is commonly accompanied by a vastly more complex and visual version of this effect which is referred to as Level 8B Geometry.

Feelings of impending doom

Feelings of impending doom can be described as sudden sensations of overwhelming fear and urgency based upon the unfounded belief that a negative event is about to occur in the immediate future. These expected negative events typically include some kind of medical emergency, one's death, or the world coming to an end. This effect can be the result of real evidence, but is most often based on an unfounded delusion or negative hallucinations. The intensity of these feelings can range from subtle to overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and a strong sense of urgency.

Feelings of impending doom can be a manifestation of a number of things including reactions to certain psychoactive substances, medical issues, mental illness, or interpersonal problems.[29] They are often accompanied by anxiety, depression, or unspeakable horrors and are most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Mindfulness

Main article: Mindfulness

Mindfulness can be described as a psychological concept which is well established within the scientific literature and commonly discussed in association with meditation. It is often broken down into two separate subcomponents which comprise this effect.

The first of these components involves the self-regulation of attention so that its focus is completely directed towards immediate experience, thereby quietening one's internal narrative and allowing for increased recognition of external and mental events within the present moment.

The second of these components involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment that is characterized by a lack of judgement, curiosity, openness, and acceptance.

Within meditation, this state of mind is deliberately practiced and maintained via the conscious and manual redirection of one's awareness towards a singular point of focus for extended periods of time. However, within the context of psychoactive substance usage, this state is often spontaneously induced without any conscious effort or the need of any prior knowledge regarding meditative techniques.

Although mindfulness usually occurs spontaneously with no immediate trigger, it is considerably more common when the person is also undergoing both anxiety suppression and focus enhancement. It primarily occurs under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, cannabinoids. However, it can also occur on entactogens, certain nootropics such as l-theanine, and during simultaneous doses of benzodiazepines and stimulants.

Paranoia

Main article: Paranoia

Paranoia can be described as negative and often irrational feelings of fear, worry, and anxiety. These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks and feelings of impending doom. Paranoia also frequently leads to excessively secretive and overcautious behavior which stems from the perceived ideation of one or more scenarios, some of which commonly include: fear of surveillance, imprisonment, conspiracies and plots against an individual, betrayal, and being caught. This effect can be the result of real evidence, but is often based on assumption and false pretense.

Personality regression

Personality regression can be described as a mental state in which one suddenly adopts an identical personality, set of mannerisms and behaviors to that of their past self from a younger age. This is often capable of making one believe that they are a child again and begin acting appropriately to this belief. There are also anecdotal reports of people speaking in languages which they have not used for many years under the influence of this effect.

Personality regression is a very rare and uncommon effect which can spontaneously accompany high level memory suppression and ego death. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Simultaneous emotions

Main article: Simultaneous emotions

Simultaneous emotions can be described as the experience of feeling multiple emotions simultaneously without an obvious external trigger. For example, during this state a user may suddenly feel intense conflicting emotions such as simultaneous happiness, sadness, love, hate, etc. This can result in states of mind in which the user can potentially feel any number of conflicting emotions in any possible combination.

Simultaneous emotions often coincide with memory suppression and emotion enhancement. It is a relatively uncommon effect that seems to occur under the influence of heavy dosages of psychedelics such as LSD and 4-AcO-DMT.

Autonomous voice communication

Autonomous voice communication can be described as the experience of being able to hear and converse with a disembodied and audible voice of unknown origin which seemingly resides within one's own head. This voice is often capable of high levels of complex and detailed speech which are typically on par with the intelligence and vocabulary of ones own conversational abilities.

As a whole, the effect itself can be broken down into 5 distinct levels of progressive intensity, each of which are listed and described below:

  1. A sensed presence of the other - This level can be defined as the distinctive feeling that another form of consciousness is internally present alongside that of one's usual sense of self. This sensation is often referred to within the scientific literature as a "sense of presence".[30][31][32][33][34]
  2. Mutually generated internal responses - This level can be defined as internally felt conversational responses to one's own thoughts and feelings which feel as if they are partially generated by one's own thought stream and in equal measure by that of a separate thought stream.
  3. Separately generated internal responses - This level can be defined as internally felt conversational responses to one's own thoughts and feelings which feel as if they are generated by an entirely distinct and separate thought stream that resides within one's head.
  4. Separately generated audible internal responses - This level can be defined as internally heard conversational responses to one's own thoughts and feelings which are perceived as a clearly defined and audible voice within one's head. These can take on a variety of voices, accents and dialects, but usually sound identical to one's own spoken voice.
  5. Separately generated audible external responses - This level can be defined as externally heard conversational responses to one's own thoughts and feelings which are perceived as a clearly defined and audible voice which sounds as if it is coming from outside one's own head. These can take on a variety of voices, accents and dialects, but usually sound identical to one's own spoken voice.

The speaker behind this voice is commonly interpreted by those who it to be the voice of one's own subconscious, the psychoactive substance itself, a specific autonomous entity, or even supernatural concepts such as god, spirits, souls and ancestors.

At higher levels, the conversational style of that which is discussed between both the voice and its host can be described as essentially identical in terms of its coherency and linguistic intelligibility as that of any other everyday interaction between the self and another human being with which one might engage in conversation with.

However, there are some subtle but identifiable differences between this experience and that of normal everyday conversations. These stem from the fact that one's specific set of knowledge, memories and experiences are identical to that of the voice which is being communicated with. This results in conversations in which both participants often share an identical vocabulary down to the very use of their colloquial slang and subtle mannerisms. As a result of this, no matter how in depth and detailed the discussion becomes, no entirely new information is ever exchanged between the two communicators. Instead, the discussion focuses primarily on building upon old ideas and discussing new opinions or perspectives regarding the previously established content of one's life.

Autonomous voice communication will often synergize with other coinciding effects such as delusions, autonomous entities, auditory hallucinations, psychosis in a manner which may lead one into believing the voices statements unquestionably in a delusional manner. It is most commonly induced under the influence of of heavy dosages hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics and deliriants. However, it may also occur during the offset of prolonged stimulant binges and less consistently under the influence of heavy dosages of cannabinoids.

Analysis

The experience of communicating with hallucinated voices has been well established with and without the use of hallucinogenic drugs through scientific study. For example, one study successfully demonstrated that anybody can encounter a dialogue between themselves and a voice of unknown origin under the influence of psilocybin mushrooms. This study interviewed 128 participants with an approximate total of 3,427 psilocybin mushroom experiences between them and revealed that 35.9% (46) of the participants reported voices whilst 64% (82) did not.[35]

Even outside of these drug-induced experiences, hearing voices within one's head is a well documented psychological phenomena and can in and of itself, generally be considered as a relatively harmless state of mind to find oneself in.[36][37]

Suicidal ideation

Main article: Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation can be described as the experience of compulsive suicidal thoughts and a general desire to end one's own life. These thoughts patterns and desires range in intensity from fleeting thoughts to an intense fixation which is often accompanied by severe depression. This effect can create a predisposition to other self-destructive behaviors such as self-harm or drug abuse and, if left unresolved, can eventually lead to attempts of suicide.

Suicidal ideation can be a manifestation of a number of things including adverse reactions to certain substances, mental illness, traumatic life events, and interpersonal problems. However, in the context of psychoactive substance usage, it is most commonly with associated various antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class.

Thought loops

Main article: Thought loops

Thought loops can be described as the experience of becoming trapped within a chain of thoughts, actions and emotions which repeat themselves over and over again in a cyclic loop. These loops usually range from anywhere between 5 seconds and 2 minutes in length. However, some users have reported them to be up to a few hours in length. It can be extremely disorientating to undergo this effect and it often triggers states of progressive anxiety within people who may be unfamiliar with the experience. The most effective way to end a cycle of thought loops is to simply sit down and try to let go.

This state of mind is most likely to occur during states of memory suppression in which there is a partial or complete failure of one's short-term memory. This may suggest that thought loops are the result of cognitive processes becoming unable to sustain themselves for appropriate lengths of time due to a lapse in short-term memory, resulting in the thought process attempting to restart from the beginning only to fall short once again in a perpetual cycle.

Thought loops are a common effect which primarily occurs under the influence of strong to heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds. These commonly include psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants, and cannabinoids. However, this effect can also occur less consistently under the influence extremely heavy dosages of stimulants and benzodiazepines

Time distortion

Main article: Time distortion

Time distortion is an effect that makes the passage of time feel difficult to keep track of and wildly distorted. It is usually felt in two different forms, time expansion and time compression. These two forms are described and documented below:

Time dilation

Time dilation can be described as the feeling that time has slowed down. This commonly occurs during intense hallucinogenic experiences and seems to at least partially stem from the fact that during an intense trip, abnormally large amounts of experience are felt in very short periods of time. This can create the illusion that more time has passed than actually has. For example, at the end of certain experiences one may feel that they have subjectively undergone days, weeks, months, years or even infinite periods of time.

Studies have demonstrated that psilocin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, significantly impairs subjects' ability to gauge time intervals longer than 2.5 seconds, impairs their ability to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 seconds, and reduces their "preferred" tapping rate.[38][39] These results are consistent with the drug's role in affecting prefrontal cortex activity, and the role that the prefrontal cortex is known to play in time perception.[citation needed]

Time dilation will often synergize with other coinciding effects such as delusions, thought loops, novelty enhancement, and internal hallucinations in a manner which may lead one into percieving a disproportionately large number of events considering the amount of time that has actually passed in the real world. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages hallucinogenic compounds such as psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants, and cannabinoids.

Time compression

Time compression can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would while sober. For example, during this state one may realize that an entire evening has passed them by in what feels only a couple of hours.

This commonly occurs under the influence of stimulating compounds and seems to at least partially stem from the fact that during an intense levels of stimulation, people typically become hyper focused on activities and tasks in a manner which can allow time to pass them by without realizing it. However, the same experience can also occur on depressant compounds which induce amnesia. This occurs due to the way in which a person can literally forget everything that has happened while still experiencing the effects of the substance, thus giving the impression that they have suddenly jumped forward in time.

Time compression will often synergize with other coinciding effects such as memory suppression, focus enhancement, stimulation, and amnesia in a manner which may lead one into perceiving a disproportionately small number of events considering the amount of time that has actually passed in the real world. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulating or amnesic compounds such as amphetamines, benzodiazepines, entactogens, and GABAergics.

See also

References

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