AB-FUBINACA

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AB-FUBINACA
Molecular structure of AB-FUBINACA
AB-FUBINACA.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Ab-fubi
Substitutive name AB-FUBINACA
Systematic name N-[(1S)-1-(Aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold < 1 mg
Light 1 - 2 mg
Common 2 - 3 mg
Strong 3 - 5 mg
Heavy > 5 mg
Duration
Total 1 - 2 hours
Onset 0 - 20 minutes
Peak 30 - 60 minutes
Offset 10 - 20 minutes
After effects 15 - 30 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Summary sheet: AB-FUBINACA

AB-FUBINACA (N-[(1S)-1-(Aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) is a drug that acts as a potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors which produces subjective effects somewhat similar to that of cannabis. It was originally developed by Pfizer in 2009 as an analgesic medication,[1] but was never pursued for human use. Subsequently in 2012, this compound was discovered as an ingredient in synthetic cannabis blends in Japan[2] along with a related compound AB-PINACA which had not previously been reported.

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. AB-FUBINACA is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.

Chemistry

AB-FUBINACA, or N-[(1S)-1-(Aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, is a synthetic indazole cannabinoid drug as it contains a substituted indazole core. A 4-substituted fluorophenyl group is bound to this indazole core through a methyl group at R1 of the indazole. This indazole is substituted at R3 with a carboxamide group. The terminal amine of this carboxamide is bonded to a substituted propyl chain with an aminocarbonyl group at R1 and a methyl group at R2.

Pharmacology

Although this substance has not been formally studied, from analysis of the structure, it is presumed that AB-FUBINACA has a similar binding profile to that of other cannabinoids and matches many of the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. As with the compounds within cannabis, AB-FUBINACA exhibits its range of effects via full agonism of both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabinoid high experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects

  • Spontaneous tactile sensations - The "body high" of AB-FUBINACA may be described as a warm, soft, pleasurable, all-encompassing tingling sensation that spreads over the body after initial ingestion. It maintains a consistent presence that quickly rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached before immediately dissipating. At high doses, this can become uncomfortably intense.
  • Sedation - Generally, the effects on the user's energy levels are primarily sedating. This encourages one to relax, and (at higher doses) fall asleep. This can be suppressed by simply forcing oneself to engage in physical activities.
  • Motor control loss - This substance causes a partial to moderate suppression of motor control which intensifies proportional to dose but rarely results in a complete inability to walk and perform basic movements.
  • Appetite enhancement - As with many other cannabinoids, AB-FUBINACA causes an increase in appetite[3], known colloquially as "the munchies" in popular American and United Kingdom culture. Clinical studies and survey data have found that cannabis increases food enjoyment and interest in food.[4] This is thought to be due to the way in which endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus activate cannabinoid receptors that are responsible for maintaining food intake.[5]
  • Changes in gravity - AB-FUBINACA can cause vertigo with which the environment appears to be spinning or oscillating. At moderate doses, it can spontaneously induce the sensation of falling, which can be overwhelming and uncomfortable.
  • Perception of bodily heaviness or Perception of decreased weight
  • Dehydration- This is known colloquially as "cotton mouth" in popular American and United Kingdom culture.
  • Nausea

Cognitive effects

Visual effects

Auditory effects

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational AB-FUBINACA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because AB-FUBINACA has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried AB-FUBINACA within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Informal experiments have shown that overdose will cause physical discomfort including heart palpitations, vertigo and sedation at much lower than dangerous doses, usually causing the user to suffer large amounts of anxiety or to fall asleep.

It is worth noting that this compound has been linked to multiple hospitalizations and deaths due to its use.[10][11]

It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis[12], particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[13][14][15]

As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a typical dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannabinoids, the chronic use of AB-FUBINACA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of AB-FUBINACA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). AB-FUBINACA presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of AB-FUBINACA all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Legal issues

  • United Kingdom - AB-FUBINACA is a class B drug under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on the 14th December 2016 and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. [16]
  • USA: In January 2014, AB-FUBINACA was designated as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States.[17]
  • Germany: On December 13, 2014 AB-FUBINACA was added to the controlled substance act ("BtMG"), making it illegal to produce, sell or possess.[18]
  • Latvia: AB-FUBINACA is a Schedule I drug.[19]
  • China: As of October 2015 AB-FUBINACA is a controlled substance in China.[20]

See also

External links

References

  1. The cannabinoid receptors (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12432948
  2. Uchiyama, N.; Matsuda, S.; Wakana, D.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "New cannabimimetic indazole derivatives, N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA) and N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA) identified as designer drugs in illegal products".
  3. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  4. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  5. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  6. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  7. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  8. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  9. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  10. Synthetic Cannabinoid–Related Illnesses and Deaths | http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1505328
  11. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC | http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(16)00037-2/abstract
  12. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  13. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  14. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  15. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  16. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2016/1109/made
  17. Four Postmortem Case Reports with Quantitative Detection of the Synthetic Cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22 (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876364
  18. Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (28. BtMÄndV)| http://www.buzer.de/gesetz/11392/a189949.htm
  19. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem (Indazola-3-karbonilatvasinājumi) | http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=121086
  20. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html