User:StasConstantine/etrДиссоциативы

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(Русский перевод o PsychonautWiki / Russian Translation of PsychonautWiki. Работа в процессе / work in progress.)


A diagrammatic comparison of the structures of glutamate and various popular dissociatives.

Dissociatives refer to a class of hallucinogen which distort sensory perceptions (mainly of sight and sound) to produce feelings of disconnection, detachment, and dissociation from the environment and self. This is done by reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1]

Диссоциативы — refer to a class of hallucinogen which distort sensory perceptions (mainly of sight and sound) to produce feelings of disconnection, detachment, and dissociation from the environment and self. This is done by reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1]

Although many classes of psychoactive substances are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which generally include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.[2] Some dissociatives, which are non-selective in action and affect the dopamine[3] and/or opioid[4] systems, may also be capable of inducing euphoria.

Mechanism of action

Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptors within the brain exist to allow for the transfer of electrical signals between neurons in the brain and in the spinal column. For electrical signals to pass, the NMDA receptor must be open. To remain open, the neurotransmitters known as glutamate and glycine must bind to the NMDA receptor. An NMDA receptor that has glycine and glutamate bound to it and has an open ion channel is called "activated."

Dissociatives are classed as NMDA receptor antagonists. This means they bind to the receptor, but do not activate it and block other neurotransmitters from doing so. The result is a dose dependent decrease in the passing of electrical signals across the brain and an overall disconnection of neurons. This leads onto states of disconnection between conscious parts of the brain and its sensory organs as well as out-of-body experiences and accompanying hallucinations.

Эффекты

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

Влияния на зрение
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Pharmacological classes

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent.| http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2850626
  2. Snyder, Solomon H. (1980). "Phencyclidine". Nature 285 (5764): 355–6. | http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v285/n5764/abs/285355a0.html
  3. Giannini, A. James; Nageotte, Catherine; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald A.; Price, William A. (1984). "Comparison of Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol and Pimozide in the Treatment of Phencyclidine Psychosis: Da-2 Receptor Specificity". Clinical Toxicology 22 (6): 573–9. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6725621
  4. Giannini, A. James; Underwood, Ned A.; Condon, Maggie (2000). "Acute Ketamine Intoxication Treated by Haloperidol". American Journal of Therapeutics 7 (6): 389–91. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11304647