|Common names||Amantadine, Midantan, Mantadix, PK-Merz, Symmetrel|
|Psychoactive class||Dissociative / Deliriant|
|Routes of Administration|
|Summary sheet: Amantadine|
Amantadine is a hallucinogen and weak stimulant of the adamantane class that produces long-lived dissociative and deliriant effects when administered. It is a derivative of amantadine and is pharmacologically related to compounds like memantine, rimantadine and adapromine.
Amantadine was first synthesized in 1960s as a antiviral drug for the treatment of influenza. It was serendipitously discovered in 1969 that amantadine possesses central dopaminergic stimulant-like properties and it was introduced for the treatment of Parkinson's disease due to its ability to increase dopamine levels in the brain.
It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 5 Legal status
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Amantadine is a substituted adamantane derivative, organic compound adamantan-1-amine, meaning it consists of an adamantane backbone that has an amino group substituted at one of the four methyne positions.
It was discovered that amantadine bind to and act as agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 7.44 µM), and that activation of the σ1 receptor is involved in the dopaminergic effects.
The mechanisms for amantadine's antiviral and psychotropic effects are unrelated. The mechanism of amantadine's antiviral activity involves interference with the viral protein, M2, a proton channel.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
You can help by expanding or correcting it.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Difficulty urinating
- Dry mouth
- Increased heart rate
- Motor control loss
- Perception of bodily lightness
- Physical autonomy
- Physical euphoria
- Pupil dilation
- Seizure - Seizures may be exacerbated in peoples with a history of a seizure disorder.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations
- Stimulation - Amantadine stimulates stronger than memantine.
- Tactile suppression
- Analysis suppression
- Cognitive euphoria
- Delirium - Delirium may be experienced with extremely high doses exceeding 1000 mg.
- Delusion - Delusion are more commonly reported on amantadine than any other dissociatives.
- Immersion enhancement
- Memory suppression
- Thought deceleration
- Thought deceleration
- Time distortion
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.
Toxicity and harm potential
Amantadine can hase serious side effects at higher dosages. High levels of amantadine consumption are associated with an increased risk of renal failure, peripheral edemas, increased heart insufficiency, and leukopenia and neutropenia. In addition deaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine. Amantadine can increase seizure activity.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
Amantadine can produce dependence with chronic use. Amantadine withdrawal syndrome is a rare event. Abrupt cessation and changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome which can produce delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Amantadine has very limited information on drug combinations and should therefore be treated with extreme caution when combined with other drugs.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.
- Stimulants - Both stimulants and dissociatives carry the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, mania, delusions and psychosis and these risks are exacerbated when the two substances are combined.
- Depressants - Because both depress the respiratory system, this combination can result in an increased risk of suddenly falling unconscious, vomiting and choking to death from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
- Deliriants - Combining amantadine with antimuscarinics such as datura, diphenhydramine, and nutmeg can severely increase BPM and BP, and as such, cardiac arrest, hypertensive crisis, as well as delirium.
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Russia: Amantadine is available through a prescription.
- Neurological Disorders: Course and Treatment | https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q9h5Xg3pwAYC&pg=PA1047&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Fatal overdose with amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3791133
- DRUGBANK Amantadine | https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00915
- Therapeutic brain concentration of the NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8532138
- Adamantane derivatives: Pharmacological and toxicological properties (review) | https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02524549
- Amantadine inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in hippocampal neurons. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9152392
- Involvement of the sigma 1 receptor in the modulation of dopaminergic transmission by amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15090047
- Ion channel activity of influenza A virus M2 protein: characterization of the amantadine block. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7688826
- Obstructive acute renal failure related to amantadine intoxication. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328395
- The Role of Amantadine Withdrawal in 3 Cases of Treatment-Refractory Altered Mental Status. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492457
- Acute delirium after withdrawal of amantadine in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9596005
- A Case Report of Severe Delirium after Amantadine Withdrawal. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28611642