Talk:Amantadine

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Amantadine can cause life-threatening heart complications and death.

It is strongly discouraged to use this substance in high doses. Please see this section for more details.

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It may contain incorrect information, particularly with respect to dosage, duration, subjective effects, toxicity and other risks.

Amantadine
Amantadine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Amantadine, Midantan, Mantadix, PK-Merz, Symmetrel
Substitutive name Amantadine
Systematic name Adamantan-1-amine
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Dissociative / Deliriant
Chemical class Adamantane
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Threshold 25 - 100 mg
Light 100 - 300 mg
Common 300 - 450 mg
Strong 450 - 600 mg
Heavy Heavy doses may result in fatal heart complications.
Duration
Total 12 - 48 hours
Onset 30 - 90 minutes
Peak 3 - 5 hours
Offset 24 - 48 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Summary sheet: Amantadine

Amantadine is a hallucinogen and weak stimulant of the adamantane class that produces long-lived dissociative and deliriant effects when administered. It is a derivative of amantadine and is pharmacologically related to compounds like memantine, rimantadine and adapromine.

Amantadine was first synthesized in 1960s as a antiviral drug for the treatment of influenza. It was serendipitously discovered in 1969 that amantadine possesses central dopaminergic stimulant-like properties and it was introduced for the treatment of Parkinson's disease due to its ability to increase dopamine levels in the brain.[1]

Deaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine.[2] Its use can lead to cardiac, respiratory, renal or central nervous system toxicity.[3]

It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Chemistry

Amantadine is a substituted adamantane derivative, organic compound adamantan-1-amine, meaning it consists of an adamantane backbone that has an amino group substituted at one of the four methyne positions.

Pharmacology

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Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

Amantadine is a weak antagonist NMDA receptors (Ki = 10 uM)[4], increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake.[5] As well amantadine inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).[6]

It was discovered that amantadine bind to and act as agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 7.44 µM), and that activation of the σ1 receptor is involved in the dopaminergic effects.[7]

The mechanisms for amantadine's antiviral and psychotropic effects are unrelated. The mechanism of amantadine's antiviral activity involves interference with the viral protein, M2, a proton channel.[8]

Subjective effects

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Disclaimer: The effects listed below are taken from the subjective effect index, which is based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy degree of skepticism. It is worth noting that these effects will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, although higher doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

In addition to dissociative effects, amantadine also manifests anticholinergic effects and higher dosages can produce in delirium.

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.

Toxicity and harm potential

Amantadine can hase serious side effects at higher dosages. High levels of amantadine consumption are associated with an increased risk of renal failure[9], peripheral edemas, increased heart insufficiency, and leukopenia and neutropenia.[5] Amantadine accumulates in patients with renal dysfunction.[10] In addition deaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine. Reports of amantadine fatalities indicate that doses of more that 2g are potentially lethal.[11]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Amantadine can produce dependence with chronic use, though amantadine withdrawal syndrome is a rare event. Abrupt cessation and changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome which can produce delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.[12][13][14]

Amantadine presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of amantadine all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Amantadine has very limited information on drug combinations and should therefore be treated with extreme caution when combined with other drugs.

Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Stimulants - Both stimulants and dissociatives carry the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, mania, delusions and psychosis and these risks are exacerbated when the two substances are combined.
  • Depressants - Because both depress the respiratory system, this combination can result in an increased risk of suddenly falling unconscious, vomiting and choking to death from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
  • Deliriants - Combining amantadine with antimuscarinics such as datura, diphenhydramine, and nutmeg can severely increase BPM and BP, and as such, cardiac arrest, hypertensive crisis, as well as delirium.

Legal status

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  • Russia: Amantadine is available through a prescription.

See also

External links

References

  1. Neurological Disorders: Course and Treatment | https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q9h5Xg3pwAYC&pg=PA1047&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  2. Fatal overdose with amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3791133
  3. DRUGBANK Amantadine | https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00915
  4. Therapeutic brain concentration of the NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8532138
  5. 5.0 5.1 Adamantane derivatives: Pharmacological and toxicological properties (review) | https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02524549
  6. Amantadine inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in hippocampal neurons. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9152392
  7. Involvement of the sigma 1 receptor in the modulation of dopaminergic transmission by amantadine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15090047
  8. Ion channel activity of influenza A virus M2 protein: characterization of the amantadine block. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7688826
  9. Obstructive acute renal failure related to amantadine intoxication. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328395
  10. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Amantadine Hydrochloride | https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00003088-198814010-00003
  11. Amantadine-induced coma | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/000399939390072I
  12. The Role of Amantadine Withdrawal in 3 Cases of Treatment-Refractory Altered Mental Status. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492457
  13. Acute delirium after withdrawal of amantadine in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9596005
  14. A Case Report of Severe Delirium after Amantadine Withdrawal. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28611642