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|Summary sheet: Theobromine|
Theobromine (3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione or xantheose) is a bitter, white stimulant drug of the xanthine class that is closely related to caffeine. It is one of the main metabolites of caffeine and is the main alkaloid of theobroma cacao and its preparations: cocoa and chocolate. It is similar to caffeine in both its chemical structure and effects but weaker in its antagonism of adenosine receptors.
Theobromine dilates blood vessels and causes a slight increase in cerebral blood flow, but it is not known if this has any effect on cognition. Cocoa Extract, which contains large amounts of Theobromine has been found to increase cerebral oxygenation in young people, but there was no measured increase in cognition
History and culture
Theobromine was first discovered in 1841 in cacao beans by Russian chemist Aleksandr Voskresensky. Synthesis of theobromine from xanthine was first reported in 1882 by Hermann Emil Fischer.
It is classified as a xanthine alkaloid (more specifically, a methylxanthine), others of which include theophylline and caffeine. Caffeine differs from these compounds in that it has an extra methyl group (see under Pharmacology section).
Theobromine is a slightly water-soluble (330 mg/L), crystalline, bitter powder. Theobromine is white or colourless, but commercial samples can be yellowish. Theobromine is an isomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine is categorized as a dimethyl xanthine.==Pharmacology==
This pharmacology section is incomplete.
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Even without dietary intake, theobromine may occur in the body as it is a product of the human metabolism of caffeine, which is metabolised in the liver into 12% theobromine, 4% theophylline, and 84% paraxanthine.
In the liver, theobromine is metabolized into xanthine and subsequently into methyluric acid. Important enzymes include CYP1A2 and CYP2E1.
"The main mechanism of action for methylxanthines has long been established as an inhibition of adenosine receptors". Its effect as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor is thought to be small.
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
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Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
If applicable, a brief paragraph summary of the substance's physical effects may be included here.
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- Stimulation - Theobromine induces stimulation similar to, but weaker than the stimulation induced by caffeine.
- Frequent urination
- Cough suppression
- Decreased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate - The myocardial stimulant effects of theobromine are greater than the effects caused by caffeine.
- Increased perspiration
- Stamina enhancement
- Tactile enhancement
If applicable, a brief paragraph summary of the substance's cognitive effects may be included here.
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- Analysis enhancement
- Anxiety - Theobromine causes decrease in anxiety and increased confidence at lower to moderate doses but can cause this effect at higher doses, causing nervousness and tremors.
- Cognitive fatigue
- Compulsive redosing
- Cognitive euphoria - Theobromine causes euphoria more frequently and with higher intensity than with caffeine
- Increased libido
- Memory enhancement
- Motivation enhancement
- Thought acceleration
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
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It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
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Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
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