SAM-e

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Summary sheet: SAM-e
SAM-e
Molecular structure of S-Adenosyl methionine
S-Adenosyl methionine.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names S-Adenosyl methionine, SAM-e, Methylguanidoacetic acid
Systematic name (2S)-2-Amino-4-(((2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl)methyl-methylsulfonio)butanoate
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Nootropic
Chemical class Nitrogenous organic acid
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Bioavailability 2-10%
Threshold 200 - 400 mg
Light 400 - 800 mg
Common 800 - 1200 mg
Strong 1200 - 1600 mg
Heavy 1600 mg +
Duration
Total 8 - 12 hours
Onset 100 - 180 minutes









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (also called S-Adenosyl methionine, Ademethionine and commonly as SAMe and SAM-e) is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation in biological organisms.[1] SAMe is an amino acid methionine bound to an ATP molecule that circulates in the blood naturally and acts as a 'methyl donor'. A methyl group in chemistry is simply a carbon molecule (bound to some hydrogens), and donating a methyl group to other molecules can accelerate or preserve reactions in the body as a form of metabolic 'maintenance'.[citation needed]

SAM-e is available over the counter and by prescription in the treatment of depression and osteoarthritis. It is generally distributed in enteric-coated tablets, which allows the supplement to pass through the low pH environment of the stomach to the gastrointestinal tract, raising the bioavaliability by 600%.[2]

Enteric coated SAM-e tablets.

A review of trials assessing oral doses of SAM-e between 200mg and 1600mg notes that they appear to have similar efficacy to tricyclic antidepressants as well as being more effective than placebo.[3]

Chemistry

S-adenosyl methionine is an endogenous molecule, found as a substrate synthesized by the sub-groups adenosine and methionine through an the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase. The adenosine subcomponent is comprised of an adedine nucleobase bonded to a ribose chain. This ribose chain is attached to the terminal carbon of the methionine group. Methionine is a butyl carboxylic acid substituted at R2 with an amino group and at R4 with a methylthio (carbon-sulphur) group. It is an essential methyl donator in metabolic reactions.[citation needed]

Pharmacology

SAM-e is an endogenous molecule that has numerous roles including methyl donation in neurotransmitter synthesis, antioxidative effects (radical scavenging, glutathione precursor), anti-inflammatory effects, and neuroprotective effects.[4]

SAME-e, in addition to providing ATP to the cell, also can convert nicotinamine into N-methyl-nicotinamide (NMNA) via nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, NMNA which can prevent choline efflux from the brain and neuron, a process which may account for some of SAM-e's nootropic effects.[5]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

In comparison to the effects of other nootropics such as noopept, this compound is reported to produce by physical and cognitive stimulation.


Physical effects
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Toxicity and harm potential

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This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
We also recommend that you practice diligent independent research and the most thorough harm reduction practices when using this substance.

There are no clinically significant side-effects of acute SAM-e supplementation. Although side-effects are not commonly reported with SAMe, numerous studies note a small set of participants who experience mania after supplementing SAM-e. While not common, it appears to be related to SAMe supplementation for unknown reasons; it has been reported in some persons without history of mania as well and does not appear to be related to any pathological condition per se.[9][10]

SAM-e is also hypothesized to raise homocystine to harmful levels, but this has yet to be proven in a laboratory environment. [11] Still, it is advised to take Sam-e along with folate and B12.

Regardless, it is strongly recommended that one be familiar with harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

SAM-e is not habit-forming with a low potential for abuse. It does not seem to be capable of causing psychological or physiological dependence among users.

Tolerance to many of the effects of S-adenosyl methionine develops over several weeks of prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly larger doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption).

Legal status

  • United States - SAM-e is approved and legal over the counter for purchase.
  • Russia - SAM-e is available by prescription.
  • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[12]

See also

External links

References

  1. Homocysteine. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10762063
  2. Bioavailability of S-adenosyl methionine and impact on response in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in major depressive disorder. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4156851/
  3. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20191258
  4. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of depression: a review of the evidence. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12420702/
  5. Nicotinamide homeostasis: a xenobiotic pathway that is key to development and degenerative diseases. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15922112
  6. [Meta-analysis of the efficacy of adenosylmethionine and oxaceprol in the treatment of osteoarthritis]. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12436324
  7. Italian double-blind multicenter study comparing S-adenosylmethionine, naproxen, and placebo in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3318442
  8. A Case Report of a Manic Episode Triggered by S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315487/
  9. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) for the treatment of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535560/
  10. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of depression: a review of the evidence. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12420702
  11. Influence of oral S-adenosylmethionine on plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, S-adenosylhomocysteine, homocysteine and methionine in healthy humans. | http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9262350
  12. Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/contents/enacted