|Summary sheet: PMMA|
|Substitutive name||para-Methoxymethamphetamine, 4-Methoxymethamphetamine|
|Routes of Administration|
para-Methoxymethamphetamine (also known as 4-methoxymethamphetamine, 4-MeOMA, inaccurately as "4-MMA" (which should instead be reserved for 4-MMA (4-MeMA) instead) and more commonly as PMMA) is a highly dangerous and toxic synthetic substance of the amphetamine class that is closely related to PMA. Like PMA, it is known for producing extremely dangerous, life-threatening side effects. At lower dosages, its effects are somewhat different from PMA, with reduced tendency to cause severe hyperthermia while producing more entactogenic effects that can be mistaken for MDMA (although at higher dosages it does have the same risk as PMA). Its history of use is unknown, but it has appeared more frequently in the 2000s and 2010s. It is generally less potent than PMA.
PMMA, along with other drugs like PMA and PMEA have very little recreational value and are considered as one of the most dangerous and toxic substances known. It is strongly recommended that these two substances should be completely avoided.
PMMA (para-Methoxymethamphetamine or 4-MMA) is a molecule of the substituted amphetamine class. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. It contains a methoxy (OCH3) functional group bound to the R4 carbon of the phenyl ring, as well as a methyl substitution at RN. PMMA is the N-methylated version of PMA and the 4-Methoxy analog of Methamphetamine.
PMMA, like PMA most likely acts as a selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) with weak effects on dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. However, relative to MDMA, it is considerably less effective as a releaser of serotonin with properties more akin to a reuptake inhibitor in comparison. It evokes robust hyperthermia while producing only modest hyperactivity and serotonergic neurotoxicity, substantially lower than that caused by MDMA. Anecdotal reports suggest it is not particularly euphoric at all, perhaps even dysphoric in contrast. PMMA has also been shown to act as a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme MAO-A with no significant effects on MAO-B, and the combination of this property and serotonin release is likely responsible for its high lethality potential. It is likely metabolized to PMA, just like methamphetamine is metabolized to amphetamine in the body.
It appears that PMMA elevates body temperatures dramatically; the cause of this property is suspected to be related to its ability to inhibit MAO-A and at the same time releasing large amounts of serotonin, effectively causing serotonin syndrome. It appears that PMMA activates the hypothalamus much more strongly than MDMA and other drugs like ephedrine, thereby causing rapid increases in body temperature (which is the major cause of death in PMMA mortalities).
|This subjective effects section is a stub.|
As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.
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Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the user's physical energy levels, PMMA is commonly regarded as moderately stimulating and energetic exclusively at lower dosages.
- Abnormal heartbeat - Accelerated and abnormal heartbeats are extremely common with PMMA.
- Appetite suppression
- Dizziness - This effect is significantly more common with PMMA than it is with methamphetamine or MDMA
- Increased bodily temperature - The most common cause of death from PMMA is due to severe hyperthermia.
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Nausea and Vomiting - This is common at any dose.
- Pupil dilation
- Rapid breathing - People commonly report "not being able to breathe".
- Seizures - This is significantly more common with PMMA than with almost any other substance.
- Teeth grinding
- Temporary erectile dysfunction
- Vibrating vision - This effect is generally more frequent than with MDMA.
- Anxiety or Anxiety suppression - This depends greatly on the dosage, as higher dosages are almost guaranteed to bring anxiety, due to all the adverse effects.
- Empathy, love and sociability enhancement - This effect is only present at lower doses and its much less pronounced than with MDMA.
- Cognitive euphoria or Cognitive dysphoria - This depends greatly on the dosage, as higher dosages are almost guaranteed to bring dysphoria, due to all the adverse effects.
- Dream suppression
- Time distortion
At moderate to high dosages, PMMA is capable of producing typically mild or moderate visual distortions, which are usually more common and pronounced than with MDMA, but significantly less when compared with most psychedelics, such as 2C-B or LSD.
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
PMMA and its relative PMA can be considered extremely toxic when compared to other substances such as Methamphetamine or MDMA. Ingestion of PMMA has been associated with severe tachycardia (abnormally high heart rate), seizures, dehydration, hyperthermia, and death. PMMA has a relatively slow onset, causing many users to redose which causes excess toxicity.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.
In February 2002, the European Council decided that PMMA shall be subjected by the Member States to control measures and criminal penalties within three months.
- Austria: PMMA is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the SMG (Suchtmittelgesetz Österreich).
- Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Canada: PMMA is a Schedule I substance.
- Germany: PMMA is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of October 10, 2000. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Switzerland: PMMA is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: PMMA is a Class A drug.
- United States: PMMA is a Schedule I drug as of July 26th, 2021.
This article does not cite enough references.
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- "Council Decision concerning control measures and criminal sanctions in respect of the new synthetic drug PMMA". Official Journal of the European Union. Office for Official Publications of the European Communites (published March 6, 2003). February 28, 2002. p. 14. OCLC 52224955. L 63.
- "Vierzehnte Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- "Anlage I BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.