Choline bitartrate

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Summary sheet: Choline bitartrate
Choline bitartrate
Molecular structure of choline
Choline.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Choline
Substitutive name Choline
Systematic name 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Nootropic
Chemical class Ammonium salt
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.



Oral
Dosage
Bioavailability 40%
Threshold 50 - 100 mg
Light 100 - 250 mg
Common 250 - 1000 mg
Strong 1000 - 2000 mg
Heavy 2000 mg +
Duration
Total 4 - 8 hours
Onset 45 - 75 minutes
Come up 15 - 30 minutes
Peak 2 - 4 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 2 - 8 hours









DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

Choline bitartrate (Choline) is a water soluble nutrient which serves as a precursor to acetylcholine in the brain. Choline is an essential nutrient in humans, with documented roles in reducing the risk of neural tube defects, fatty liver disease and other pathologies.[1] It is also used in the synthesis of components in cell membranes.[2]

Choline supplementation can be used in the treatment of liver disorders,[3][4] hepatitis, glaucoma,[5] atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease,[6] bipolar disorder[7] and possibly other neurological disorders.[8] It has also been shown to have a positive effect on those suffering from alcoholism.[9][10]

When taken as a supplement, this compound has been reported to produce nootropic effects. It is easily available and commonly sold for this purpose through the use of online supplement vendors.

Chemistry

Choline is comprised of a quaternary ammonium group and an alcohol functional group, which are connected through an ethyl chain. Its charged cation can bind to a negative group or atom to form various salts, which can produce varying effects. Choline chloride can form a low-melting deep eutectic solvent mixture with urea with unusual properties.[11]

Pharmacology

Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes as well as cholinergic neurotransmission (as a precursor to acetylcholine synthesis).[2] This process essentially allows acetylcholine to accumulate at higher levels than that which it otherwise would. As acetylcholine is involved in the function of memory, this could potentially account for its nootropic effects.

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects

  • Stimulation - The stimulation which choline presents can be considered as primarily subtle, less than that of caffeine.
  • Headaches
  • Body odor alteration - This occurs in some populations, especially those suffering from trimethylaminuria. Choline is a precursor to trimethylamine, which some persons are not able to easily break down, often resulting in a "fishy smell."[12]

Cognitive effects

Toxicity and harm potential

As choline is a natural precursor to acetylcholine which is naturally found in the body, it is well tolerated and therefore unlikely to be harmful in any way. Choline is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has an extremely low toxicity relative to dose. Similar to many other nootropics substances, there are relatively few physical side effects associated with acute choline exposure. Various studies have shown that in reasonable doses in a careful context, it presents no negative cognitive, psychiatric or toxic physical consequences of any sort.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Choline is not habit-forming and the desire to use it can actually decrease with use. It is most often self-regulating.

Tolerance to the effects of choline are built after prolonged and repeated usage. After that, it takes about 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 14 days to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Choline presents cross-tolerance with no other known compounds, meaning that after the consumption of choline, other psychoactive compounds will not have a reduced effect.

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • United States: In the United States, choline is legal as a dietary supplement. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires choline to be in non-dairy infant formula.[13]

Literature

  • Abbott, A. P., Capper, G., Davies, D. L., Rasheed, R. K., & Tambyrajah, V. (2003). Novel solvent properties of choline chloride/urea mixtures. Chemical Communications, 99(1), 70–71. https://doi.org/10.1039/b210714g
  • Behari, J., Yeh, T.-H., Krauland, L., Otruba, W., Cieply, B., Hauth, B., … Monga, S. P. S. (2010). Liver-Specific B-Catenin Knockout Mice Exhibit Defective Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostasis and Increased Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis. The American Journal of Pathology, 176(2), 744–753. https://doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.090667
  • Chan, K. C., So, K. fai, & Wu, E. X. (2009). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed choline reduction in the visual cortex in an experimental model of chronic glaucoma. Experimental Eye Research, 88(1), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2008.10.002
  • Doggrell, S. a, & Evans, S. (2003). Treatment of dementia with neurotransmission modulation. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 12(10), 1633–54. https://doi.org/10.1517/13543784.12.10.1633
  • Glier, M. B., Green, T. J., & Devlin, A. M. (2014). Methyl nutrients, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular disease. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 58(1), 172–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200636
  • Klatskin, G. (1954). the Effect of Alcohol on the Choline Requirement: Ii. Incidence of Renal Necrosis in Weanling Rats Following Short Term Ingestion of Alcohol. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 100(6), 615–627. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.100.6.615
  • Nery, F. G., Stanley, J. A., Chen, H.-H., Hatch, J. P., Nicoletti, M. A., Serap Monkul, E., … Soares, J. C. (2010). Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcoholism: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(5), 278–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.006
  • Parnetti, L., Mignini, F., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2007). Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation? Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 257(1–2), 264–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043
  • Stoll, A. L., Sachs, G. S., Cohen, B. M., Lafer, B., Christensen, J. D., & Renshaw, P. F. (1996). Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: Clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biological Psychiatry, 40(5), 382–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(95)00423-8
  • Tolvanen, T., Yli-Kerttula, T., Ujula, T., Autio, A., Lehikoinen, P., Minn, H., & Roivainen, A. (2010). Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [11C]choline: A comparison between rat and human data. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 37(5), 874–883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-009-1346-z
  • Van Beek, A. H. E. A., & Claassen, J. A. H. R. (2011). The cerebrovascular role of the cholinergic neural system in Alzheimer’s disease. Behavioural Brain Research, 221(2), 537–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.047
  • Zeisel, S. H., & Da Costa, K. A. (2009). Choline: An essential nutrient for public health. Nutrition Reviews, 67(11), 615–623. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x

References

  1. Zeisel, S. H., & Da Costa, K. A. (2009). Choline: An essential nutrient for public health. Nutrition Reviews, 67(11), 615–623. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x
  2. 2.0 2.1 Glier, M. B., Green, T. J., & Devlin, A. M. (2014). Methyl nutrients, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular disease. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 58(1), 172–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200636
  3. Tolvanen, T., Yli-Kerttula, T., Ujula, T., Autio, A., Lehikoinen, P., Minn, H., & Roivainen, A. (2010). Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [11C]choline: A comparison between rat and human data. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 37(5), 874–883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-009-1346-z
  4. Behari, J., Yeh, T.-H., Krauland, L., Otruba, W., Cieply, B., Hauth, B., … Monga, S. P. S. (2010). Liver-Specific B-Catenin Knockout Mice Exhibit Defective Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostasis and Increased Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis. The American Journal of Pathology, 176(2), 744–753. https://doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.090667
  5. Chan, K. C., So, K. fai, & Wu, E. X. (2009). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed choline reduction in the visual cortex in an experimental model of chronic glaucoma. Experimental Eye Research, 88(1), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2008.10.002
  6. Van Beek, A. H. E. A., & Claassen, J. A. H. R. (2011). The cerebrovascular role of the cholinergic neural system in Alzheimer’s disease. Behavioural Brain Research, 221(2), 537–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.047
  7. Stoll, A. L., Sachs, G. S., Cohen, B. M., Lafer, B., Christensen, J. D., & Renshaw, P. F. (1996). Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: Clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biological Psychiatry, 40(5), 382–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(95)00423-8
  8. Zeisel, S. H., & Da Costa, K. A. (2009). Choline: An essential nutrient for public health. Nutrition Reviews, 67(11), 615–623. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x
  9. Klatskin, G. (1954). the Effect of Alcohol on the Choline Requirement: Ii. Incidence of Renal Necrosis in Weanling Rats Following Short Term Ingestion of Alcohol. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 100(6), 615–627. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.100.6.615
  10. Nery, F. G., Stanley, J. A., Chen, H.-H., Hatch, J. P., Nicoletti, M. A., Serap Monkul, E., … Soares, J. C. (2010). Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcoholism: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(5), 278–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.006
  11. Abbott, A. P., Capper, G., Davies, D. L., Rasheed, R. K., & Tambyrajah, V. (2003). Novel solvent properties of choline chloride/urea mixtures. Chemical Communications, 99(1), 70–71. https://doi.org/10.1039/b210714g
  12. Rehman, H. (1999). Fish odour syndrome. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 75(886), 451–452. https://doi.org/10.1136/pmj.76.895.318a
  13. United States Government Publishing Office (2017) https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=10e89c74892c74350b79d3a4e51b1338&mc=true&node=se21.2.107_1100&rgn=div8